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"[Lines Spoken by the Ghost of John Dennis at the Devil Tavern]"

"[Lines Spoken by the Ghost of John Dennis
at the Devil Tavern]"


1 From purling streams and the Elysian scene,
2 From groves that smile with never-fading green,
3 I reascend: in Atropos' despite
4 Restored to Celadon and upper light.
5 Ye gods, that sway the regions under ground,
6 Reveal to mortal view your realms profound;
7 At his command admit the eye of day:
8 When Celadon commands, what god can disobey?
9 Nor seeks he your Tartarean fires to know,
10 The house of torture and the abyss of woe;
11 But happy fields and mansions free from pain,
12 Gay meads and springing flowers, best please the gentle swain.

13 That little, naked, melancholy thing,
14 My soul, when first she tried her flight to wing,
15 Began with speed new regions to explore,
16 And blundered through a narrow postern door.
17 First most devoutly having said its prayers,
18 It tumbled down a thousand pair of stairs,
19 Through entries long, through cellars vast and deep,
20 Where ghostly rats their habitations keep,
21 Where spiders spread their webs and owlish goblins sleep.
22 After so many chances had befell,
23 It came into a mead of asphodel:
24 Betwixt the confines of the light and dark
25 It lies, of 'Lysium the St. James's Park.
26 Here spirit-beaux flutter along the Mall,
27 And shadows in disguise skate o'er the iced Canal;
28 Here groves embowered and more sequestered shades,
29 Frequented by the ghosts of ancient maids,
30 Are seen to rise. The melancholy scene,
31 With gloomy haunts and twilight walks between,
32 Conceals the wayward band: here spend their time
33 Greensickness girls that died in youthful prime,
34 Virgins forlorn, all dressed in willow-green-i,
35 With Queen Elizabeth and Nicolini.

36 More to reveal, or many words to use,
37 Would tire alike your patience and my muse.
38 Believe that never was so faithful found
39 Queen Proserpine to Pluto under ground,
40 Or Cleopatra to her Mark Antony,
41 As Orozmades to his Celadony.

42 P.S. Lucrece for half a crown will show you fun,
43 But Mrs. Oldfield is become a nun.
44 Nobles and cits, Prince Pluto and his spouse,
45 Flock to the ghost of Covent-Garden House:
46 Plays, which were hissed above, below revive,
47 When dead applauded that were damned alive.
48 The people, as in life, still keep their passions,
49 But differ something from the world in fashions.
50 Queen Artemisia breakfasts on bohea,
51 And Alexander wears a ramilie.

Expanding the poem lines (+) shows the results of a computationally facilitated analysis of the text. These results should be considered as a basis for deeper interpretative enquiry such as can be found in the notes and queries.

0 "[Lines Spoken by the Ghost of John Dennis
at the Devil Tavern]"

Metrical notation:  irregular
Metrical foot type:  iambic (-+)
Metrical foot number:  pentameter (5 feet), hexameter (6 feet)
Rhyme scheme:  aa
Rhyme (stanza position):  pair (aabb)
Stanza:  couplet (2 lines)

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1 From purling streams and the Elysian scene,    
Rhyme:  aa   |   Rhyme word:  scene   |   Rhyme sound:  /iːn/   |   Rhyme (line position):  end
Figure:  alliteration (phonological): streams/scene /s/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): streams/scene /iː/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): From/streams /m/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): purling/Elysian /l/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): streams/scene /s/
Figure:  anaphora (morphological): From

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2 From groves that smile with never-fading green,    
Rhyme:  aa   |   Rhyme word:  green   |   Rhyme sound:  /iːn/   |   Rhyme (line position):  end
Figure:  alliteration (phonological): groves/green /g/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): From/never-fading /f/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): groves/green /g/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): groves/never-fading /v/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): that/with /ð/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): never-fading/green /n/
Figure:  anaphora (morphological): From

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3 I reascend: in Atropos' despite    
Rhyme:  aa   |   Rhyme word:  despite   |   Rhyme sound:  /aɪt/   |   Rhyme (line position):  end
Figure:  assonance (phonological): I/despite /aɪ/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): in/despite /ɪ/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): reascend/in /n/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): reascend/despite /s/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): Atropos'/despite /t/

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4 Restored to Celadon and upper light.    
Rhyme:  aa   |   Rhyme word:  light   |   Rhyme sound:  /aɪt/   |   Rhyme (line position):  end
Figure:  consonance (phonological): Restored/Celadon /d/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): Restored/Celadon /s/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): Celadon/light /l/

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5 Ye gods, that sway the regions under ground,    
Rhyme:  aa   |   Rhyme word:  ground   |   Rhyme sound:  /aʊnd/   |   Rhyme (line position):  end
Figure:  alliteration (phonological): gods/ground /g/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): Ye/regions /iː/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): gods/ground /g/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): under/ground /n/

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6 Reveal to mortal view your realms profound;    
Rhyme:  aa   |   Rhyme word:  profound   |   Rhyme sound:  /aʊnd/   |   Rhyme (line position):  end
Figure:  alliteration (phonological): Reveal/realms /r/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): to/view /uː/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): mortal/your /ɔː/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): Reveal/realms /l/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): Reveal/realms /r/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): Reveal/view /v/

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7 At his command admit the eye of day:    
Rhyme:  aa   |   Rhyme word:  day   |   Rhyme sound:  /eɪ/   |   Rhyme (line position):  end
Figure:  assonance (phonological): his/admit /ɪ/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): command/admit /ə/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): At/admit /t/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): command/admit /m/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): admit/day /d/

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8 When Celadon commands, what god can disobey?    
Rhyme:  aa   |   Rhyme word:  disobey   |   Rhyme sound:  /eɪ/   |   Rhyme (line position):  end
Figure:  alliteration (phonological): When/what /w/
Figure:  alliteration (phonological): commands/can /k/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): When/Celadon /e/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): Celadon/what/god /ɒ/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): When/what /w/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): When/Celadon/commands/can /n/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): Celadon/god/disobey /d/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): Celadon/disobey /s/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): commands/can /k/

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9 Nor seeks he your Tartarean fires to know,    
Rhyme:  aa   |   Rhyme word:  know   |   Rhyme sound:  /əʊ/   |   Rhyme (line position):  end
Figure:  alliteration (phonological): Nor/know /n/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): Nor/your /ɔː/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): seeks/he /iː/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): Nor/Tartarean/know /n/

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10 The house of torture and the abyss of woe;    
Rhyme:  aa   |   Rhyme word:  woe   |   Rhyme sound:  /əʊ/   |   Rhyme (line position):  end
Figure:  assonance (phonological): of/of /ɒ/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): house/abyss /s/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): of/of /v/
Figure:  diacope (morphological): of/of

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11 But happy fields and mansions free from pain,    
Rhyme:  aa   |   Rhyme word:  pain   |   Rhyme sound:  /eɪn/   |   Rhyme (line position):  end
Figure:  alliteration (phonological): fields/free/from /f/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): happy/and/mansions /æ/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): fields/free /iː/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): happy/pain /p/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): fields/free/from /f/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): mansions/pain /n/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): mansions/from /m/

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12 Gay meads and springing flowers, best please the gentle swain.    
Rhyme:  aa   |   Rhyme word:  swain   |   Rhyme sound:  /eɪn/   |   Rhyme (line position):  end
Figure:  alliteration (phonological): springing/swain /s/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): Gay/swain /eɪ/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): meads/please /iː/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): best/gentle /e/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): springing/best/swain /s/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): flowers/please /z/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): gentle/swain /n/

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13 That little, naked, melancholy thing,    
Rhyme:  aa   |   Rhyme word:  thing   |   Rhyme sound:  /ɪŋ/   |   Rhyme (line position):  end
Figure:  assonance (phonological): little/thing /ɪ/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): That/little /t/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): little/melancholy /l/

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14 My soul, when first she tried her flight to wing,    
Rhyme:  aa   |   Rhyme word:  wing   |   Rhyme sound:  /ɪŋ/   |   Rhyme (line position):  end
Figure:  alliteration (phonological): when/wing /w/
Figure:  alliteration (phonological): first/flight /f/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): My/tried/flight /aɪ/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): first/her /ɜː/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): soul/first /s/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): when/wing /w/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): first/flight /f/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): tried/flight /t/

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15 Began with speed new regions to explore,    
Rhyme:  aa   |   Rhyme word:  explore   |   Rhyme sound:  /ɔː/   |   Rhyme (line position):  end
Figure:  assonance (phonological): Began/with/explore /ɪ/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): speed/regions /iː/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): new/to /uː/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): Began/new /n/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): speed/explore /s/

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16 And blundered through a narrow postern door.    
Rhyme:  aa   |   Rhyme word:  door   |   Rhyme sound:  /ɔː/   |   Rhyme (line position):  end
Figure:  assonance (phonological): And/narrow /æ/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): blundered/narrow /n/

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17 First most devoutly having said its prayers,    
Rhyme:  aa   |   Rhyme word:  prayers   |   Rhyme sound:  /eɪəz/   |   Rhyme (line position):  end
Figure:  assonance (phonological): devoutly/its /ɪ/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): First/most/said /s/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): devoutly/having /v/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): devoutly/said /d/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): devoutly/its /t/

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18 It tumbled down a thousand pair of stairs,    
Rhyme:  aa   |   Rhyme word:  stairs   |   Rhyme sound:  /eəz/   |   Rhyme (line position):  end
Figure:  assonance (phonological): down/thousand /aʊ/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): pair/stairs /eə/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): It/tumbled /t/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): thousand/stairs /z/

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19 Through entries long, through cellars vast and deep,    
Rhyme:  aaa   |   Rhyme word:  deep   |   Rhyme sound:  /iːp/   |   Rhyme (line position):  end
Stanza:  triplet (3 lines)
Figure:  alliteration (phonological): Through/through /θ/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): Through/through /uː/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): entries/cellars /e/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): Through/through /θ/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): long/cellars /l/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): cellars/vast /s/
Figure:  diacope (morphological): Through/through

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20 Where ghostly rats their habitations keep,    
Rhyme:  aaa   |   Rhyme word:  keep   |   Rhyme sound:  /iːp/   |   Rhyme (line position):  end
Stanza:  triplet (3 lines)
Figure:  assonance (phonological): Where/their /eə/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): rats/habitations /æ/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): rats/habitations /t/
Figure:  anaphora (morphological): Where

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21 Where spiders spread their webs and owlish goblins sleep.    
Rhyme:  aaa   |   Rhyme word:  sleep   |   Rhyme sound:  /iːp/   |   Rhyme (line position):  end
Stanza:  triplet (3 lines)
Figure:  alliteration (phonological): Where/webs /w/
Figure:  alliteration (phonological): spiders/spread/sleep /s/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): Where/their /eə/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): spread/webs /e/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): Where/webs /w/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): spiders/spread /d/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): spiders/spread/sleep /s/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): webs/goblins /b/
Figure:  anaphora (morphological): Where

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22 After so many chances had befell,    
Rhyme:  aa   |   Rhyme word:  befell   |   Rhyme sound:  /el/   |   Rhyme (line position):  end
Figure:  assonance (phonological): After/chances /ɑː/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): many/befell /e/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): After/befell /f/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): many/chances /n/

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23 It came into a mead of asphodel:    
Rhyme:  aa   |   Rhyme word:  asphodel   |   Rhyme sound:  /el/   |   Rhyme (line position):  end
Figure:  assonance (phonological): It/into /ɪ/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): came/mead /m/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): mead/asphodel /d/

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24 Betwixt the confines of the light and dark    
Rhyme:  aa   |   Rhyme word:  dark   |   Rhyme sound:  /ɑːk/   |   Rhyme (line position):  end
Figure:  assonance (phonological): confines/of /ɒ/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): Betwixt/confines/dark /k/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): Betwixt/light /t/

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25 It lies, of 'Lysium the St. James's Park.    
Rhyme:  aa   |   Rhyme word:  Park   |   Rhyme sound:  /ɑːk/   |   Rhyme (line position):  end
Figure:  alliteration (phonological): lies/'Lysium /l/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): lies/'Lysium /aɪ/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): lies/'Lysium /l/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): 'Lysium/St. /s/
Figure:  aphaeresis (morphological): 'Lysium

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26 Here spirit-beaux flutter along the Mall,    
Rhyme:  aa   |   Rhyme word:  Mall   |   Rhyme sound:  /æl/   |   Rhyme (line position):  end
Figure:  consonance (phonological): along/Mall /l/

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27 And shadows in disguise skate o'er the iced Canal;    
Rhyme:  aa   |   Rhyme word:  Canal   |   Rhyme sound:  /æl/   |   Rhyme (line position):  end
Figure:  assonance (phonological): And/shadows/Canal /æ/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): in/disguise /ɪ/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): disguise/iced /aɪ/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): shadows/disguise /d/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): in/Canal /n/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): disguise/skate/iced /s/
Figure:  syncope (morphological): o'er

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28 Here groves embowered and more sequestered shades,    
Rhyme:  aa   |   Rhyme word:  shades   |   Rhyme sound:  /eɪdz/   |   Rhyme (line position):  end
Figure:  assonance (phonological): embowered/sequestered /ɪ/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): embowered/shades /d/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): embowered/more /m/

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29 Frequented by the ghosts of ancient maids,    
Rhyme:  aa   |   Rhyme word:  maids   |   Rhyme sound:  /eɪdz/   |   Rhyme (line position):  end
Figure:  assonance (phonological): ancient/maids /eɪ/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): Frequented/ancient /n/

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30 Are seen to rise. The melancholy scene,    
Rhyme:  aa   |   Rhyme word:  scene   |   Rhyme sound:  /iːn/   |   Rhyme (line position):  end
Figure:  alliteration (phonological): seen/scene /s/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): seen/scene /iː/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): seen/scene /n/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): seen/scene /s/
Figure:  paronomasia (homophonic) (semantic): seen/scene

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31 With gloomy haunts and twilight walks between,    
Rhyme:  aa   |   Rhyme word:  between   |   Rhyme sound:  /iːn/   |   Rhyme (line position):  end
Figure:  assonance (phonological): With/between /ɪ/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): haunts/walks /ɔː/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): With/walks /w/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): haunts/between /n/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): twilight/between /t/

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32 Conceals the wayward band: here spend their time    
Rhyme:  aa   |   Rhyme word:  time   |   Rhyme sound:  /aɪm/   |   Rhyme (line position):  end
Figure:  consonance (phonological): Conceals/band/spend /n/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): Conceals/spend /s/

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33 Greensickness girls that died in youthful prime,    
Rhyme:  aa   |   Rhyme word:  prime   |   Rhyme sound:  /aɪm/   |   Rhyme (line position):  end
Figure:  alliteration (phonological): Greensickness/girls /g/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): Greensickness/in /ɪ/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): died/prime /aɪ/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): Greensickness/in /n/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): Greensickness/girls /g/

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34 Virgins forlorn, all dressed in willow-green-i,    
Rhyme:  aa   |   Rhyme word:  willow-green-i   |   Rhyme sound:  /ɪləʊgriːnaɪ/   |   Rhyme (line position):  end
Figure:  assonance (phonological): forlorn/all /ɔː/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): in/willow-green-i /ɪ/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): forlorn/all/willow-green-i /l/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): forlorn/in /n/

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35 With Queen Elizabeth and Nicolini.    
Rhyme:  aa   |   Rhyme word:  Nicolini   |   Rhyme sound:  /iːnɪ/   |   Rhyme (line position):  end
Figure:  assonance (phonological): With/Elizabeth/Nicolini /ɪ/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): Queen/Nicolini /iː/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): Queen/Nicolini /n/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): Queen/Nicolini /k/

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36 More to reveal, or many words to use,    
Rhyme:  aa   |   Rhyme word:  use   |   Rhyme sound:  /uːz/   |   Rhyme (line position):  end
Figure:  alliteration (phonological): More/many /m/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): More/or /ɔː/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): to/to/use /uː/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): More/many /m/

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37 Would tire alike your patience and my muse.    
Rhyme:  aa   |   Rhyme word:  muse   |   Rhyme sound:  /uːz/   |   Rhyme (line position):  end
Figure:  alliteration (phonological): my/muse /m/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): tire/alike/my /aɪ/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): my/muse /m/

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38 Believe that never was so faithful found    
Rhyme:  aa   |   Rhyme word:  found   |   Rhyme sound:  /aʊnd/   |   Rhyme (line position):  end
Figure:  alliteration (phonological): faithful/found /f/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): Believe/never /v/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): never/found /n/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): faithful/found /f/

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39 Queen Proserpine to Pluto under ground,    
Rhyme:  aa   |   Rhyme word:  ground   |   Rhyme sound:  /aʊnd/   |   Rhyme (line position):  end
Figure:  alliteration (phonological): Proserpine/Pluto /p/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): to/Pluto /uː/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): Queen/under/ground /n/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): Proserpine/Pluto /p/

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40 Or Cleopatra to her Mark Antony,    
Rhyme:  aa   |   Rhyme word:  Antony   |   Rhyme sound:  /antənɪ/   |   Rhyme (line position):  end
Figure:  consonance (phonological): Cleopatra/Mark /k/

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41 As Orozmades to his Celadony.    
Rhyme:  aa   |   Rhyme word:  Celadony   |   Rhyme sound:  /elədɒni/   |   Rhyme (line position):  end
Figure:  consonance (phonological): As/his /z/

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42 P.S. Lucrece for half a crown will show you fun,    
Rhyme:  aa   |   Rhyme word:  fun   |   Rhyme sound:  /ʌn/   |   Rhyme (line position):  end
Figure:  assonance (phonological): Lucrece/you /uː/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): Lucrece/will /l/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): Lucrece/crown /k/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): for/half/fun /f/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): crown/fun /n/

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43 But Mrs. Oldfield is become a nun.    
Rhyme:  aa   |   Rhyme word:  nun   |   Rhyme sound:  /ʌn/   |   Rhyme (line position):  end
Figure:  alliteration (phonological): But/become /b/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): But/become/nun /ʌ/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): Mrs./is/become /ɪ/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): But/become /b/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): Mrs./become /m/

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44 Nobles and cits, Prince Pluto and his spouse,    
Rhyme:  aa   |   Rhyme word:  spouse   |   Rhyme sound:  /aʊs/   |   Rhyme (line position):  end
Figure:  alliteration (phonological): cits/spouse /s/
Figure:  alliteration (phonological): Prince/Pluto /p/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): and/and /æ/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): cits/Prince/his /ɪ/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): Nobles/Prince /n/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): cits/spouse /s/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): cits/Pluto /t/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): Prince/Pluto /p/

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45 Flock to the ghost of Covent-Garden House:    
Rhyme:  aa   |   Rhyme word:  House   |   Rhyme sound:  /aʊs/   |   Rhyme (line position):  end
Figure:  assonance (phonological): Flock/of/Covent-Garden /ɒ/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): Flock/Covent-Garden /k/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): ghost/House /s/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): of/Covent-Garden /v/

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46 Plays, which were hissed above, below revive,    
Rhyme:  aa   |   Rhyme word:  revive   |   Rhyme sound:  /aɪv/   |   Rhyme (line position):  end
Figure:  assonance (phonological): which/hissed/below/revive /ɪ/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): which/were /w/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): above/below /b/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): above/revive /v/

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47 When dead applauded that were damned alive.    
Rhyme:  aa   |   Rhyme word:  alive   |   Rhyme sound:  /aɪv/   |   Rhyme (line position):  end
Figure:  alliteration (phonological): dead/damned /d/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): When/dead /e/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): applauded/alive /ə/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): that/damned /æ/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): When/were /w/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): dead/applauded/damned /d/

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48 The people, as in life, still keep their passions,    
Rhyme:  aa   |   Rhyme word:  passions   |   Rhyme sound:  /æʃnz/   |   Rhyme (line position):  end
Figure:  alliteration (phonological): people/passions /p/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): people/keep /iː/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): as/passions /æ/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): in/still /ɪ/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): people/keep/passions /p/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): life/still /l/

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49 But differ something from the world in fashions.    
Rhyme:  aa   |   Rhyme word:  fashions   |   Rhyme sound:  /æʃnz/   |   Rhyme (line position):  end
Figure:  alliteration (phonological): from/fashions /f/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): But/something /ʌ/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): differ/in /ɪ/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): differ/from/fashions /f/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): something/from /m/

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50 Queen Artemisia breakfasts on bohea,    
Rhyme:  aa   |   Rhyme word:  bohea   |   Rhyme sound:  /iː/   |   Rhyme (line position):  end
Figure:  alliteration (phonological): breakfasts/bohea /b/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): Queen/Artemisia/bohea /iː/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): Queen/on /n/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): Queen/breakfasts /k/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): breakfasts/bohea /b/

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51 And Alexander wears a ramilie.    
Rhyme:  aa   |   Rhyme word:  ramilie   |   Rhyme sound:  /amɪliː/   |   Rhyme (line position):  end
Figure:  assonance (phonological): Alexander/ramilie /a/

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Expanding the poem lines (+) shows notes and queries taken from various critical editions of Gray's works, as well as those contributed by users of the Archive. There are 0 textual and 1 explanatory notes/queries.

All notes and queries are shown by default.

0 "[Lines Spoken by the Ghost of John Dennis
at the Devil Tavern]" 1 Explanatory

Title/Paratext] "Whibley describes the Lines as [...]" H.W. Starr/J.R. Hendrickson, 1966.

"Whibley describes the Lines as the 'earliest original poem by Gray now extant'. It was sent to Walpole on 8 Dec. 1734, with this introductory statement: 'I ... had too much modesty to venture answering ... in the Poetical Strain myself: but, when I was last at the DEVIL, meeting by chance with the deceased Mr Dennis there, he offer'd his Service, &, being tip'd with a Tester, wrought, what follows—.' John Dennis (1657-6 Jan. 1734), an enemy of Pope and an important early eighteenth-century critic, was frequently in need of money."

The Complete Poems of Thomas Gray: English, Latin and Greek. Edited by Herbert W. Starr and J. R. Hendrickson. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1966, 235.

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1 From purling streams and the Elysian scene,
2 From groves that smile with never-fading green,
3 I reascend: in Atropos' despite
4 Restored to Celadon and upper light.
5 Ye gods, that sway the regions under ground,
6 Reveal to mortal view your realms profound;
7 At his command admit the eye of day:
8 When Celadon commands, what god can disobey?
9 Nor seeks he your Tartarean fires to know,
10 The house of torture and the abyss of woe;
11 But happy fields and mansions free from pain,
12 Gay meads and springing flowers, best please the gentle swain.

13 That little, naked, melancholy thing,
14 My soul, when first she tried her flight to wing,
15 Began with speed new regions to explore,
16 And blundered through a narrow postern door.
17 First most devoutly having said its prayers,
18 It tumbled down a thousand pair of stairs,
19 Through entries long, through cellars vast and deep,
20 Where ghostly rats their habitations keep,
21 Where spiders spread their webs and owlish goblins sleep.
22 After so many chances had befell,
23 It came into a mead of asphodel:
24 Betwixt the confines of the light and dark
25 It lies, of 'Lysium the St. James's Park.
26 Here spirit-beaux flutter along the Mall,
27 And shadows in disguise skate o'er the iced Canal;
28 Here groves embowered and more sequestered shades,
29 Frequented by the ghosts of ancient maids,
30 Are seen to rise. The melancholy scene,
31 With gloomy haunts and twilight walks between,
32 Conceals the wayward band: here spend their time
33 Greensickness girls that died in youthful prime,
34 Virgins forlorn, all dressed in willow-green-i,
35 With Queen Elizabeth and Nicolini.

36 More to reveal, or many words to use,
37 Would tire alike your patience and my muse.
38 Believe that never was so faithful found
39 Queen Proserpine to Pluto under ground,
40 Or Cleopatra to her Mark Antony,
41 As Orozmades to his Celadony.

42 P.S. Lucrece for half a crown will show you fun,
43 But Mrs. Oldfield is become a nun.
44 Nobles and cits, Prince Pluto and his spouse,
45 Flock to the ghost of Covent-Garden House:
46 Plays, which were hissed above, below revive,
47 When dead applauded that were damned alive.
48 The people, as in life, still keep their passions,
49 But differ something from the world in fashions.
50 Queen Artemisia breakfasts on bohea,
51 And Alexander wears a ramilie.

Works cited

  • The Complete Poems of Thomas Gray: English, Latin and Greek. Edited by Herbert W. Starr and J. R. Hendrickson. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1966.

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Spelling has been modernized throughout, except in case of conscious archaisms. Contractions, italics and initial capitalization have been largely eliminated, except where of real import. Obvious errors have been silently corrected, punctuation has been supplied. The editor would like to express his gratitude to the library staff of the Göttingen State and University Library (SUB Göttingen) for their invaluable assistance.