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Agrippina, a Tragedy


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Agrippina, a Tragedy


Dramatis Personae

Agrippina, the Empress mother.
Nero, the Emperor.
Poppaea, believed to be in love with Otho.
Otho, a young man of quality, in love with Poppaea.
Seneca, the Emperor's preceptor.
Anicetus, Captain of the Guards.
Demetrius, the Cynic, friend to Seneca.
Aceronia, confidant to Agrippina.

Scene, the Emperor's villa at Baiae


The Argument

The drama opens with the indignation of Agrippina, at receiving
her son's orders from Anicetus to remove from Baiae, and to
have her guard taken from her. At this time Otho having
conveyed Poppaea from the house of her husband Rufus Crispinus,
brings her to Baiae, where he means to conceal her among the
croud; or, if his fraud is discovered, to have recourse to the
Emperor's authority; but, knowing the lawless temper of Nero, he
determines not to have recourse to that expedient, but on the
utmost necessity. In the meantime he commits her to the care of
Anicetus, whom he takes to be his friend, and in whose age he
thinks he may safely confide. Nero is not yet come to Baiae:
but Seneca, whom he sends before him, informs Agrippina of the
accusation concerning Rubellius Plancus, and desires her to
clear herself, which she does briefly; but demands to see her
son, who, on his arrival, acquits her of all suspicion, and
restores her to her honours. In the meanwhile Anicetus, to
whose care Poppaea had been entrusted by Otho, contrives the
following plot to ruin Agrippina: He betrays his trust to Otho,
and brings Nero, as it were by chance, to the sight of the
beautiful Poppaea; the Emperor is immediately struck with her
charms, and she, by a feigned resistance, increases his passion;
tho', in reality, she is from the first dazzled with the
prospect of empire, and forgets Otho: She therefore joins with
Anicetus in his design of ruining Agrippina, soon perceiving
that it will be for her interest. Otho hearing that the Emperor
had seen Poppaea, is much enraged; but not knowing that this
interview was obtained thro' the treachery of Anicetus, is
readily persuaded by him to see Agrippina in secret, and
acquaint her with his fears that her son Nero would marry
Poppaea. Agrippina, to support her own power, and to wean the
Emperor from the love of Poppaea, gives Otho encouragement, and
promises to support him. Anicetus secretly introduces Nero to
hear their discourse; who resolves immediately on his mother's
death, and, by Anicetus's means, to destroy her by drowning. A
solemn feast, in honour of their reconciliation, is to be made;
after which she being to go by sea to Bauli, the ship is so
contrived as to sink or crush her; she escapes by accident, and
returns to Baiae. In this interval Otho has an interview with
Poppaea; and being duped a second time by Anicetus and her,
determines to fly with her into Greece, by means of a vessel
which is to be furnished by Anicetus; but he, pretending to
remove Poppaea on board in the night, conveys her to Nero's
apartment: She there encourages and determines Nero to banish
Otho, and finish the horrid deed he had attempted on his
mother. Anicetus undertakes to execute his resolves; and, under
pretence of a plot upon the Emperor's life, is sent with a
guard to murder Agrippina, who is still at Baiae in imminent
fear, and irresolute how to conduct herself. The account of her
death, and the Emperor's horrour and fruitless remorse,
finishes the drama.


ACT I.   Scene I.

[Agrippina, Aceronia]

AGRIPPINA

1 'Tis well, begone! your errand is performed.
[Speaks as to Anicetus entering.]
2 The message needs no comment. Tell your master,
3 His mother shall obey him. Say you saw her
4 Yielding due reverence to his high command:
5 Alone, unguarded and without a lictor
6 As fits the daughter of Germanicus.
7 Say, she retired to Antium; there to tend
8 Her household cares, a woman's best employment.
9 What if you add, how she turned pale and trembled:
10 You think, you spied a tear stand in her eye,
11 And would have dropped, but that her pride restrained it?
12 (Go! you can paint it well) 'twill profit you,
13 And please the stripling. Yet 'twould dash his joy
14 To hear the spirit of Britannicus
15 Yet walks on earth: at least there are who know
16 Without a spell to raise, and bid it fire
17 A thousand haughty hearts, unused to shake
18 When a boy frowns, nor to be lured with smiles
19 To taste of hollow kindness, or partake
20 His hospitable board: they are aware
21 Of the unpledged bowl, they love not Aconite.

ACERONIA

22 He's gone; and much I hope these walls alone
23 And the mute air are privy to your passion.
24 Forgive your servant's fears, who sees the danger
25 Which fierce resentment cannot fail to raise
26 In haughty youth and irritated power.

AGRIPPINA

27 And dost thou talk to me, to me, of danger,
28 Of haughty youth and irritated power,
29 To her that gave it being, her that armed
30 This painted Jove, and taught his novice hand
31 To aim the forked bolt; while he stood trembling,
32 Scared at the sound and dazzled with its brightness?

33 'Tis like, thou hast forgot, when yet a stranger
34 To adoration, to the grateful steam
35 Of flattery's incense and obsequious vows
36 From voluntary realms, a puny boy,
37 Decked with no other lustre than the blood
38 Of Agrippina's race, he lived unknown
39 To fame or fortune; haply eyed at distance
40 Some edileship, ambitious of the power
41 To judge of weights and measures; scarcely dared
42 On expectation's strongest wing to soar
43 High as the consulate, that empty shade
44 Of long-forgotten liberty: when I
45 Oped his young eye to bear the blaze of greatness;
46 Showed him where empire towered, and bade him strike
47 The noble quarry. Gods! then was the time
48 To shrink from danger; fear might then have worn
49 The mask of prudence; but a heart like mine,
50 A heart that glows with the pure Julian fire,
51 If bright ambition from her craggy seat
52 Display the radiant prize, will mount undaunted,
53 Gain the rough heights, and grasp the dangerous honour.

ACERONIA

54 Through various life I have pursued your steps,
55 Have seen your soul, and wondered at its daring:
56 Hence rise my fears. Nor am I yet to learn
57 How vast the debt of gratitude which Nero
58 To such a mother owes; the world you gave him
59 Suffices not to pay the obligation.

60 I well remember too (for I was present)
61 When in a secret and dead hour of night,
62 Due sacrifice performed with barbarous rites
63 Of muttered charms and solemn invocation,
64 You bade the Magi call the dreadful powers
65 That read futurity, to know the fate
66 Impending o'er your son: their answer was,
67 If the son reign, the mother perishes.
68 Perish (you cried) the mother! reign the son!
69 He reigns, the rest is heaven's; who oft has bade,
70 Even when its will seemed wrote in lines of blood,
71 The unthought event disclose a whiter meaning.
72 Think too how oft in weak and sickly minds
73 The sweets of kindness lavishly indulged
74 Rankle to gall; and benefits too great
75 To be repaid, sit heavy on the soul,
76 As unrequited wrongs. The willing homage
77 Of prostrate Rome, the senate's joint applause,
78 The riches of the earth, the train of pleasures
79 That wait on youth and arbitrary sway:
80 These were your gift, and with them you bestowed
81 The very power he has to be ungrateful.

AGRIPPINA

82 Thus ever grave and undisturbed reflection
83 Pours its cool dictates in the madding ear
84 Of rage, and thinks to quench the fire it feels not.
85 Sayest thou I must be cautious, must be silent,
86 And tremble at the phantom I have raised?
87 Carry to him thy timid counsels. He
88 Perchance may heed 'em: tell him too, that one
89 Who had such liberal power to give, may still
90 With equal power resume that gift, and raise
91 A tempest that shall shake her own creation
92 To its original atoms— tell me! say,
93 This mighty emperor, this dreaded hero,
94 Has he beheld the glittering front of war?
95 Knows his soft ear the trumpet's thrilling voice,
96 And outcry of the battle? Have his limbs
97 Sweat under iron harness? Is he not
98 The silken son of dalliance, nursed in ease
99 And pleasure's flowery lap? Rubellius lives,
100 And Sylla has his friends, though schooled by fear
101 To bow the supple knee, and court the times
102 With shows of fair obeisance; and a call
103 Like mine might serve belike to wake pretensions
104 Drowsier than theirs, who boast the genuine blood
105 Of our imperial house. [Cannot my nod]
106 Rouse [up] eight hardy legions, wont to stem
107 With stubborn nerves the tide, and face the rigour
108 Of bleak Germania's snows[?] Four, not less brave,
109 That in Armenia quell the Parthian force
110 Under the warlike Corbulo, by [me]
111 Marked for their leader: these, by ties confirmed
112 Of old respect and gratitude, are [mine].
113 Surely the Masians too, and those of Egypt,
114 Have not forgot [my] sire: the eye of Rome
115 And the Praetorian camp have long revered,
116 With customed awe, the daughter, sister, wife,
117 And mother of their Caesars. Ha! by Juno,
118 It bears a noble semblance. On this base
119 My great revenge shall rise; or say we sound
120 The trump of liberty; there will not want,
121 Even in the servile senate, ears to own
122 Her spirit-stirring voice; Soranus there,
123 And Cassius; Veto too, and Thrasea,
124 Minds of the antique cast, rough, stubborn souls,
125 That struggle with the yoke. How shall the spark
126 Unquenchable, that glows within their breasts,
127 Blaze into freedom, when the idle herd
128 (Slaves from the womb, created but to stare
129 And bellow in the Circus) yet will start,
130 And shake 'em at the name of liberty,
131 Stung by a senseless word, a vain tradition,
132 As there were magic in it? Wrinkled beldams
133 Teach it their grandchildren, as somewhat rare
134 That anciently appeared, but when, extends
135 Beyond their chronicle— oh! 'tis a cause
136 To arm the hand of childhood, and rebrace
137 The slackened sinews of time-wearied age.

138 Yes, we may meet, ungrateful boy, we may!
139 Again the buried Genius of old Rome
140 Shall from the dust uprear his reverend head,
141 Roused by the shout of millions: there before
142 His high tribunal thou and I appear.
143 Let majesty sit on thy awful brow
144 And lighten from thy eye: around thee call
145 The gilded swarm that wantons in the sunshine
146 Of thy full favour; Seneca be there
147 In gorgeous phrase of laboured eloquence
148 To dress thy plea, and Burrhus strengthen it
149 With his plain soldier's oath and honest seeming.
150 Against thee, liberty and Agrippina:
151 The world, the prize; and fair befall the victors.

152 But soft! why do I waste the fruitless hours
153 In threats unexecuted? Haste thee, fly
154 These hated walls that seem to mock my shame,
155 And cast me forth in duty to their lord.

156 My thought aches at him; not the basilisk
157 More deadly to the sight than is to me
158 The cool injurious eye of frozen kindness.
159 I will not meet its poison. Let him feel
160 Before he sees me. Yes, I will be gone,
161 But not to Antium— all shall be confessed,
162 Whate'er the frivolous tongue of giddy fame
163 Has spread among the crowd; things that but whispered
164 Have arched the hearer's brow and riveted
165 His eyes in fearful ecstasy: no matter
166 What, so it be strange, and dreadful.— Sorceries,
167 Assassinations, poisonings; the deeper
168 My guilt, the blacker his ingratitude.

169 And you, ye manes of ambition's victims,
170 Enshrined Claudius, with the pitied ghosts
171 Of the Syllani, doomed to early death
172 (Ye unavailing horrors, fruitless crimes!),
173 If from the realms of night my voice ye hear,
174 In lieu of penitence and vain remorse,
175 Accept my vengeance. Though by me ye bled,
176 He was the cause. My love, my fears for him,
177 Dried the soft springs of pity in my heart,
178 And froze them up with deadly cruelty.
179 Yet if your injured shades demand my fate,
180 If murder cries for murder, blood for blood,
181 Let me not fall alone; but crush his pride,
182 And sink the traitor in his mother's ruin. Exeunt.


Scene II.

[Otho, Poppaea]

OTHO

183 Thus far we're safe. Thanks to the rosy queen
184 Of amorous thefts: and had her wanton son
185 Lent us his wings, we could not have beguiled
186 With more elusive speed the dazzled sight
187 Of wakeful jealousy. Be gay securely;
188 Dispel, my fair, with smiles, the timorous cloud
189 That hangs on thy clear brow. So Helen looked,
190 So her white neck reclined, so was she borne
191 By the young Trojan to his gilded bark
192 With fond reluctance, yielding modesty,
193 And oft reverted eye, as if she knew not
194 Whether she feared or wished to be pursued.

Expanding the poem lines (+) shows the results of a computationally facilitated analysis of the text. These results should be considered as a basis for deeper interpretative enquiry such as can be found in the notes and queries.

0 Agrippina, a Tragedy

Metrical notation:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/
Metrical foot type:  iambic (-+)
Metrical foot number:  pentameter (5 feet)
Syllable pattern:  10
Genre(s):  blank verse

Notation symbols: | (foot boundary), || (caesura), / (metrical line boundary), + (metrically prominent), - (metrically non-prominent)


Dramatis Personae

Agrippina, the Empress mother.
Nero, the Emperor.
Poppaea, believed to be in love with Otho.
Otho, a young man of quality, in love with Poppaea.
Seneca, the Emperor's preceptor.
Anicetus, Captain of the Guards.
Demetrius, the Cynic, friend to Seneca.
Aceronia, confidant to Agrippina.

Scene, the Emperor's villa at Baiae


The Argument

The drama opens with the indignation of Agrippina, at receiving
her son's orders from Anicetus to remove from Baiae, and to
have her guard taken from her. At this time Otho having
conveyed Poppaea from the house of her husband Rufus Crispinus,
brings her to Baiae, where he means to conceal her among the
croud; or, if his fraud is discovered, to have recourse to the
Emperor's authority; but, knowing the lawless temper of Nero, he
determines not to have recourse to that expedient, but on the
utmost necessity. In the meantime he commits her to the care of
Anicetus, whom he takes to be his friend, and in whose age he
thinks he may safely confide. Nero is not yet come to Baiae:
but Seneca, whom he sends before him, informs Agrippina of the
accusation concerning Rubellius Plancus, and desires her to
clear herself, which she does briefly; but demands to see her
son, who, on his arrival, acquits her of all suspicion, and
restores her to her honours. In the meanwhile Anicetus, to
whose care Poppaea had been entrusted by Otho, contrives the
following plot to ruin Agrippina: He betrays his trust to Otho,
and brings Nero, as it were by chance, to the sight of the
beautiful Poppaea; the Emperor is immediately struck with her
charms, and she, by a feigned resistance, increases his passion;
tho', in reality, she is from the first dazzled with the
prospect of empire, and forgets Otho: She therefore joins with
Anicetus in his design of ruining Agrippina, soon perceiving
that it will be for her interest. Otho hearing that the Emperor
had seen Poppaea, is much enraged; but not knowing that this
interview was obtained thro' the treachery of Anicetus, is
readily persuaded by him to see Agrippina in secret, and
acquaint her with his fears that her son Nero would marry
Poppaea. Agrippina, to support her own power, and to wean the
Emperor from the love of Poppaea, gives Otho encouragement, and
promises to support him. Anicetus secretly introduces Nero to
hear their discourse; who resolves immediately on his mother's
death, and, by Anicetus's means, to destroy her by drowning. A
solemn feast, in honour of their reconciliation, is to be made;
after which she being to go by sea to Bauli, the ship is so
contrived as to sink or crush her; she escapes by accident, and
returns to Baiae. In this interval Otho has an interview with
Poppaea; and being duped a second time by Anicetus and her,
determines to fly with her into Greece, by means of a vessel
which is to be furnished by Anicetus; but he, pretending to
remove Poppaea on board in the night, conveys her to Nero's
apartment: She there encourages and determines Nero to banish
Otho, and finish the horrid deed he had attempted on his
mother. Anicetus undertakes to execute his resolves; and, under
pretence of a plot upon the Emperor's life, is sent with a
guard to murder Agrippina, who is still at Baiae in imminent
fear, and irresolute how to conduct herself. The account of her
death, and the Emperor's horrour and fruitless remorse,
finishes the drama.


ACT I.   Scene I.

[Agrippina, Aceronia]

AGRIPPINA

1 'Tis well, begone! your errand is performed.    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  assonance (phonological): 'Tis/begone/is /ɪ/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): well/errand /e/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): your/performed /ɔː/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): 'Tis/is /z/
Figure:  aphaeresis (morphological): 'Tis

Add a correction, note or query to this line

[Speaks as to Anicetus entering.]
2 The message needs no comment. Tell your master,    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  alliteration (phonological): message/master /m/
Figure:  alliteration (phonological): needs/no /n/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): message/Tell /e/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): message/comment/master /m/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): message/master /s/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): needs/no /n/

Add a correction, note or query to this line

3 His mother shall obey him. Say you saw her    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  alliteration (phonological): His/him/her /h/
Figure:  alliteration (phonological): Say/saw /s/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): His/him /ɪ/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): obey/Say /eɪ/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): His/him/her /h/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): mother/him /m/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): Say/saw /s/

Add a correction, note or query to this line

4 Yielding due reverence to his high command:    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  alliteration (phonological): his/high /h/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): due/to /uː/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): his/high /h/

Add a correction, note or query to this line

5 Alone, unguarded and without a lictor    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  assonance (phonological): without/lictor /ɪ/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): Alone/lictor /l/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): Alone/unguarded /n/

Add a correction, note or query to this line

6 As fits the daughter of Germanicus.    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  consonance (phonological): fits/daughter /t/

Add a correction, note or query to this line

7 Say, she retired to Antium; there to tend    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  assonance (phonological): to/to /uː/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): retired/tend /t/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): Antium/tend /n/

Add a correction, note or query to this line

8 Her household cares, a woman's best employment.    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  alliteration (phonological): Her/household /h/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): Her/household /h/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): household/best /s/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): woman's/employment /m/

Add a correction, note or query to this line

9 What if you add, how she turned pale and trembled:    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  alliteration (phonological): turned/trembled /t/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): add/and /æ/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): What/turned/trembled /t/

Add a correction, note or query to this line

10 You think, you spied a tear stand in her eye,    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  alliteration (phonological): You/you /j/
Figure:  alliteration (phonological): spied/stand /s/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): You/you /uː/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): think/in /ɪ/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): spied/eye /aɪ/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): You/you /j/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): spied/stand /s/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): stand/in /n/
Figure:  diacope (morphological): You/you

Add a correction, note or query to this line

11 And would have dropped, but that her pride restrained it?    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  alliteration (phonological): have/her /h/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): And/have/that /æ/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): restrained/it /ɪ/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): would/dropped/pride /d/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): have/her /h/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): dropped/pride /p/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): but/that/it /t/

Add a correction, note or query to this line

12 (Go! you can paint it well) 'twill profit you,    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  alliteration (phonological): you/you /j/
Figure:  alliteration (phonological): paint/profit /p/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): you/you /uː/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): it/'twill /ɪ/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): you/you /j/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): can/paint /n/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): paint/profit /p/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): it/'twill /t/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): well/'twill /l/
Figure:  diacope (morphological): you/you
Figure:  aphaeresis (morphological): 'twill

Add a correction, note or query to this line

13 And please the stripling. Yet 'twould dash his joy    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  assonance (phonological): And/dash /æ/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): stripling/his /ɪ/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): please/stripling /p/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): please/his /z/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): Yet/'twould /t/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): 'twould/dash /d/
Figure:  aphaeresis (morphological): 'twould

Add a correction, note or query to this line

14 To hear the spirit of Britannicus    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  assonance (phonological): spirit/Britannicus /ɪ/

Add a correction, note or query to this line

15 Yet walks on earth: at least there are who know    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  consonance (phonological): Yet/at /t/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): on/know /n/

Add a correction, note or query to this line

16 Without a spell to raise, and bid it fire    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  assonance (phonological): Without/bid/it /ɪ/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): Without/it /t/

Add a correction, note or query to this line

17 A thousand haughty hearts, unused to shake    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  alliteration (phonological): haughty/hearts /h/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): unused/to /uː/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): thousand/unused /z/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): haughty/hearts /h/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): haughty/hearts /t/

Add a correction, note or query to this line

18 When a boy frowns, nor to be lured with smiles    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  consonance (phonological): When/with /w/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): When/frowns/nor /n/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): lured/smiles /l/

Add a correction, note or query to this line

19 To taste of hollow kindness, or partake    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  assonance (phonological): taste/partake /eɪ/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): of/hollow /ɒ/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): taste/partake /t/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): kindness/partake /k/

Add a correction, note or query to this line

20 His hospitable board: they are aware    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  alliteration (phonological): His/hospitable /h/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): His/hospitable /h/

Add a correction, note or query to this line

21 Of the unpledged bowl, they love not Aconite.    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  assonance (phonological): Of/not /ɒ/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): unpledged/love /ʌ/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): Of/love /v/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): unpledged/not/Aconite /n/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): bowl/love /l/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): not/Aconite /t/

Add a correction, note or query to this line


ACERONIA

22 He's gone; and much I hope these walls alone    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  alliteration (phonological): He's/hope /h/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): He's/these /iː/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): hope/alone /əʊ/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): He's/hope /h/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): He's/these /z/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): gone/alone /n/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): walls/alone /l/

Add a correction, note or query to this line

23 And the mute air are privy to your passion.    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  alliteration (phonological): privy/passion /p/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): And/passion /æ/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): mute/to /uː/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): privy/passion /p/

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24 Forgive your servant's fears, who sees the danger    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  alliteration (phonological): Forgive/fears /f/
Figure:  alliteration (phonological): servant's/sees /s/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): Forgive/servant's /v/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): Forgive/fears /f/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): servant's/sees /s/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): fears/sees /z/

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25 Which fierce resentment cannot fail to raise    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  alliteration (phonological): fierce/fail /f/
Figure:  alliteration (phonological): resentment/raise /r/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): Which/resentment /ɪ/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): fail/raise /eɪ/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): fierce/fail /f/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): resentment/cannot /n/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): resentment/raise /r/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): resentment/raise /z/

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26 In haughty youth and irritated power.    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  assonance (phonological): In/irritated /ɪ/

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AGRIPPINA

27 And dost thou talk to me, to me, of danger,    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  alliteration (phonological): dost/danger /d/
Figure:  alliteration (phonological): me/me /m/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): to/to /uː/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): me/me /iː/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): dost/danger /d/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): me/me /m/
Figure:  diacope (morphological): me/me

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28 Of haughty youth and irritated power,    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10

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29 To her that gave it being, her that armed    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  alliteration (phonological): her/her /h/
Figure:  alliteration (phonological): that/that /ð/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): her/her /ɜː/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): that/that /æ/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): her/her /h/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): that/that /ð/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): that/it/that /t/
Figure:  diacope (morphological): her/her

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30 This painted Jove, and taught his novice hand    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  alliteration (phonological): his/hand /h/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): This/his /ɪ/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): and/hand /æ/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): painted/novice/hand /n/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): Jove/novice /v/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): his/hand /h/

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31 To aim the forked bolt; while he stood trembling,    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  consonance (phonological): aim/trembling /m/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): bolt/while /l/

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32 Scared at the sound and dazzled with its brightness?    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  alliteration (phonological): Scared/sound /s/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): at/and/dazzled /æ/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): with/its /ɪ/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): Scared/dazzled /d/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): Scared/sound /s/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): at/its/brightness /t/

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33 'Tis like, thou hast forgot, when yet a stranger    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  assonance (phonological): when/yet /e/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): 'Tis/forgot/yet /t/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): hast/stranger /s/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): when/stranger /n/
Figure:  aphaeresis (morphological): 'Tis

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34 To adoration, to the grateful steam    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  assonance (phonological): To/to /uː/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): adoration/grateful /eɪ/

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35 Of flattery's incense and obsequious vows    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  assonance (phonological): flattery's/and /æ/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): Of/vows /v/

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36 From voluntary realms, a puny boy,    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  assonance (phonological): From/voluntary /ɒ/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): voluntary/realms /l/

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37 Decked with no other lustre than the blood    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  assonance (phonological): other/lustre/blood /ʌ/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): Decked/blood /d/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): with/other/than /ð/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): no/than /n/

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38 Of Agrippina's race, he lived unknown    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  assonance (phonological): Agrippina's/he /iː/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): Of/lived /v/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): Agrippina's/unknown /n/

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39 To fame or fortune; haply eyed at distance    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  alliteration (phonological): fame/fortune /f/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): or/fortune /ɔː/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): haply/at /æ/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): fame/fortune /f/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): eyed/distance /d/

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40 Some edileship, ambitious of the power    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  consonance (phonological): Some/ambitious /m/

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41 To judge of weights and measures; scarcely dared    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  assonance (phonological): scarcely/dared /eə/

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42 On expectation's strongest wing to soar    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  alliteration (phonological): strongest/soar /s/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): On/strongest /ɒ/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): strongest/wing /ŋ/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): strongest/soar /s/

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43 High as the consulate, that empty shade    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  assonance (phonological): as/that /æ/

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44 Of long-forgotten liberty: when I    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  alliteration (phonological): long-forgotten/liberty /l/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): Of/long-forgotten /ɒ/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): long-forgotten/liberty /l/

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45 Oped his young eye to bear the blaze of greatness;    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  alliteration (phonological): bear/blaze /b/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): blaze/greatness /eɪ/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): his/blaze /z/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): bear/blaze /b/

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46 Showed him where empire towered, and bade him strike    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  alliteration (phonological): him/him /h/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): him/him /ɪ/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): and/bade /æ/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): Showed/towered/bade /d/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): him/him /h/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): him/empire/him /m/
Figure:  diacope (morphological): him/him

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47 The noble quarry. Gods! then was the time    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  assonance (phonological): quarry/Gods/was /ɒ/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): noble/then /n/

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48 To shrink from danger; fear might then have worn    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  alliteration (phonological): from/fear /f/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): from/might /m/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): from/fear /f/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): danger/then/worn /n/

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49 The mask of prudence; but a heart like mine,    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  alliteration (phonological): mask/mine /m/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): mask/heart /ɑː/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): like/mine /aɪ/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): mask/mine /m/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): but/heart /t/
Figure:  simile (semantic): like...

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50 A heart that glows with the pure Julian fire,    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  consonance (phonological): heart/that /t/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): that/with /ð/

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51 If bright ambition from her craggy seat    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  assonance (phonological): If/ambition /ɪ/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): ambition/craggy /æ/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): If/from /f/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): bright/ambition /b/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): bright/seat /t/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): ambition/from /m/

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52 Display the radiant prize, will mount undaunted,    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  assonance (phonological): Display/will /ɪ/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): Display/radiant /eɪ/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): Display/radiant/undaunted /d/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): mount/undaunted /n/

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53 Gain the rough heights, and grasp the dangerous honour.    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  alliteration (phonological): Gain/grasp /g/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): Gain/dangerous /eɪ/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): Gain/dangerous/honour /n/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): Gain/grasp /g/

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ACERONIA

54 Through various life I have pursued your steps,    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  assonance (phonological): Through/pursued /uː/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): life/I /aɪ/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): various/have /v/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): pursued/steps /p/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): pursued/steps /s/

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55 Have seen your soul, and wondered at its daring:    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  alliteration (phonological): seen/soul /s/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): Have/and/at /æ/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): seen/wondered /n/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): seen/soul /s/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): at/its /t/

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56 Hence rise my fears. Nor am I yet to learn    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  assonance (phonological): Hence/yet /e/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): rise/my/I /aɪ/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): Hence/Nor/learn /n/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): rise/fears /z/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): my/am /m/

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57 How vast the debt of gratitude which Nero    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  consonance (phonological): vast/of /v/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): debt/gratitude /d/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): debt/gratitude /t/

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58 To such a mother owes; the world you gave him    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  assonance (phonological): To/you /uː/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): such/mother /ʌ/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): mother/him /m/

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59 Suffices not to pay the obligation.    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  assonance (phonological): not/obligation /ɒ/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): pay/obligation /eɪ/

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60 I well remember too (for I was present)    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  assonance (phonological): I/I /aɪ/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): well/remember/present /e/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): well/was /w/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): was/present /z/
Figure:  diacope (morphological): I/I

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61 When in a secret and dead hour of night,    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  assonance (phonological): When/dead /e/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): When/in/night /n/

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62 Due sacrifice performed with barbarous rites    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  assonance (phonological): sacrifice/rites /aɪ/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): sacrifice/performed /f/

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63 Of muttered charms and solemn invocation,    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  assonance (phonological): Of/solemn /ɒ/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): muttered/charms /m/

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64 You bade the Magi call the dreadful powers    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  consonance (phonological): bade/dreadful /d/

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65 That read futurity, to know the fate    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  alliteration (phonological): futurity/fate /f/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): futurity/to /uː/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): That/futurity/fate /t/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): read/futurity /r/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): futurity/fate /f/

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66 Impending o'er your son: their answer was,    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  consonance (phonological): Impending/son/answer /n/
Figure:  syncope (morphological): o'er

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67 If the son reign, the mother perishes.    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  assonance (phonological): son/mother /ʌ/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): son/reign /n/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): reign/perishes /r/

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68 Perish (you cried) the mother! reign the son!    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  assonance (phonological): mother/son /ʌ/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): Perish/reign /r/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): reign/son /n/

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69 He reigns, the rest is heaven's; who oft has bade,    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  alliteration (phonological): He/heaven's/who /h/
Figure:  alliteration (phonological): reigns/rest /r/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): rest/heaven's /e/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): has/bade /æ/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): He/heaven's/who/has /h/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): reigns/rest /r/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): is/has /z/

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70 Even when its will seemed wrote in lines of blood,    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  alliteration (phonological): when/will /w/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): Even/seemed /iː/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): its/will/in /ɪ/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): Even/of /v/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): when/will /w/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): when/in/lines /n/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): its/wrote /t/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): will/lines /l/

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71 The unthought event disclose a whiter meaning.    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  assonance (phonological): event/disclose /ɪ/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): unthought/event/meaning /n/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): unthought/whiter /t/

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72 Think too how oft in weak and sickly minds    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  assonance (phonological): Think/in/sickly /ɪ/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): in/minds /n/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): weak/sickly /k/

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73 The sweets of kindness lavishly indulged    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  consonance (phonological): of/lavishly /v/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): kindness/indulged /n/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): lavishly/indulged /l/

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74 Rankle to gall; and benefits too great    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  alliteration (phonological): gall/great /g/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): Rankle/and /æ/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): to/too /uː/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): gall/great /g/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): too/great /t/

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75 To be repaid, sit heavy on the soul,    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  alliteration (phonological): sit/soul /s/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): repaid/sit /ɪ/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): sit/soul /s/

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76 As unrequited wrongs. The willing homage    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  assonance (phonological): wrongs/homage /ɒ/

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77 Of prostrate Rome, the senate's joint applause,    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  assonance (phonological): Of/prostrate /ɒ/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): prostrate/applause /p/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): prostrate/senate's /s/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): senate's/joint /n/

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78 The riches of the earth, the train of pleasures    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  assonance (phonological): of/of /ɒ/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): of/of /v/
Figure:  diacope (morphological): of/of

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79 That wait on youth and arbitrary sway:    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  assonance (phonological): That/and /æ/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): wait/sway /eɪ/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): That/wait /t/

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80 These were your gift, and with them you bestowed    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  alliteration (phonological): These/them /ð/
Figure:  alliteration (phonological): your/you /j/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): gift/with /ɪ/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): These/with/them /ð/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): were/with /w/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): your/you /j/

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81 The very power he has to be ungrateful.    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  assonance (phonological): he/be /iː/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): he/has /h/

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AGRIPPINA

82 Thus ever grave and undisturbed reflection    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  assonance (phonological): Thus/undisturbed /ʌ/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): ever/reflection /e/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): Thus/undisturbed /s/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): ever/grave /v/

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83 Pours its cool dictates in the madding ear    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  assonance (phonological): its/dictates/in /ɪ/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): cool/dictates /k/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): dictates/madding /d/

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84 Of rage, and thinks to quench the fire it feels not.    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  alliteration (phonological): fire/feels /f/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): Of/not /ɒ/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): thinks/it /ɪ/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): quench/not /n/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): fire/feels /f/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): it/not /t/

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85 Sayest thou I must be cautious, must be silent,    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  alliteration (phonological): Sayest/silent /s/
Figure:  alliteration (phonological): must/must /m/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): I/silent /aɪ/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): must/must /ʌ/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): be/be /iː/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): Sayest/must/must/silent /s/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): must/must /m/
Figure:  diacope (morphological): must/must
Figure:  diacope (morphological): be/be

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86 And tremble at the phantom I have raised?    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  assonance (phonological): And/at/phantom/have /æ/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): tremble/at /t/

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87 Carry to him thy timid counsels. He    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  alliteration (phonological): Carry/counsels /k/
Figure:  alliteration (phonological): him/He /h/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): him/timid /ɪ/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): Carry/counsels /k/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): him/He /h/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): him/timid /m/

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88 Perchance may heed 'em: tell him too, that one    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  alliteration (phonological): heed/him /h/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): Perchance/'em /ə/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): Perchance/one /n/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): may/'em/him /m/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): heed/him /h/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): tell/too/that /t/
Figure:  aphaeresis (morphological): 'em

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89 Who had such liberal power to give, may still    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  alliteration (phonological): Who/had /h/
Figure:  alliteration (phonological): such/still /s/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): Who/to /uː/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): liberal/give/still /ɪ/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): Who/had /h/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): such/still /s/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): liberal/still /l/

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90 With equal power resume that gift, and raise    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  alliteration (phonological): resume/raise /r/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): With/resume/gift /ɪ/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): that/and /æ/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): With/that /ð/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): resume/raise /r/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): resume/raise /z/

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91 A tempest that shall shake her own creation    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  alliteration (phonological): shall/shake /ʃ/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): that/shall /æ/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): shake/creation /eɪ/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): tempest/that /t/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): shall/shake/creation /ʃ/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): shake/creation /k/

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92 To its original atoms— tell me! say,    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  assonance (phonological): its/original /ɪ/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): its/atoms/tell /t/

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93 This mighty emperor, this dreaded hero,    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  alliteration (phonological): This/this /ð/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): This/this /ɪ/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): emperor/dreaded /e/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): This/this /ð/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): This/this /s/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): mighty/emperor /m/

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94 Has he beheld the glittering front of war?    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  assonance (phonological): beheld/glittering /ɪ/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): Has/he/beheld /h/

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95 Knows his soft ear the trumpet's thrilling voice,    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  assonance (phonological): his/thrilling /ɪ/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): Knows/his /z/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): soft/voice /s/

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96 And outcry of the battle? Have his limbs    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  alliteration (phonological): Have/his /h/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): And/battle/Have /æ/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): his/limbs /ɪ/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): outcry/battle /t/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): of/Have /v/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): Have/his /h/
Figure:  pysma (pragmatic)

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97 Sweat under iron harness? Is he not    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  alliteration (phonological): harness/he /h/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): Sweat/not /t/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): under/iron/harness/not /n/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): harness/he /h/
Figure:  pysma (pragmatic)

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98 The silken son of dalliance, nursed in ease    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  alliteration (phonological): silken/son /s/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): silken/in /ɪ/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): silken/dalliance /l/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): silken/son/nursed /s/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): son/nursed/in /n/

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99 And pleasure's flowery lap? Rubellius lives,    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  alliteration (phonological): lap/lives /l/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): And/lap /æ/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): pleasure's/Rubellius /e/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): pleasure's/lap /p/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): flowery/Rubellius /r/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): lap/Rubellius/lives /l/
Figure:  anaphora (morphological): And

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100 And Sylla has his friends, though schooled by fear    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  alliteration (phonological): Sylla/schooled /s/
Figure:  alliteration (phonological): friends/fear /f/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): And/has /æ/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): Sylla/his /ɪ/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): Sylla/schooled /l/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): Sylla/schooled /s/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): has/his /h/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): has/his /z/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): friends/fear /f/
Figure:  anaphora (morphological): And

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101 To bow the supple knee, and court the times    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  consonance (phonological): court/times /t/

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102 With shows of fair obeisance; and a call    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  assonance (phonological): shows/obeisance /əʊ/

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103 Like mine might serve belike to wake pretensions    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  alliteration (phonological): mine/might /m/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): Like/mine/might/belike /aɪ/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): Like/belike /l/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): Like/belike/wake /k/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): mine/pretensions /n/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): mine/might /m/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): might/pretensions /t/
Figure:  simile (semantic): Like...

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104 Drowsier than theirs, who boast the genuine blood    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  alliteration (phonological): than/theirs /ð/
Figure:  alliteration (phonological): boast/blood /b/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): Drowsier/blood /d/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): Drowsier/theirs /z/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): than/genuine /n/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): than/theirs /ð/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): boast/blood /b/

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105 Of our imperial house. [Cannot my nod]    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  assonance (phonological): Of/nod /ɒ/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): our/house /aʊ/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): imperial/my /m/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): Cannot/nod /n/

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106 Rouse [up] eight hardy legions, wont to stem    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10

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107 With stubborn nerves the tide, and face the rigour    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  assonance (phonological): With/rigour /ɪ/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): stubborn/face /s/

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108 Of bleak Germania's snows[?] Four, not less brave,    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  alliteration (phonological): bleak/brave /b/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): Of/not /ɒ/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): Germania's/brave /eɪ/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): Of/brave /v/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): bleak/brave /b/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): Germania's/not /n/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): snows/less /s/

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109 That in Armenia quell the Parthian force    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  assonance (phonological): Armenia/Parthian /ɑː/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): in/Armenia /n/

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110 Under the warlike Corbulo, by [me]    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  assonance (phonological): warlike/by /aɪ/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): warlike/Corbulo /ɔː/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): warlike/Corbulo /l/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): warlike/Corbulo /k/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): Corbulo/by /b/

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111 Marked for their leader: these, by ties confirmed    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  alliteration (phonological): their/these /ð/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): leader/these /iː/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): by/ties /aɪ/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): Marked/confirmed /k/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): Marked/confirmed /m/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): for/confirmed /f/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): their/these /ð/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): these/ties /z/

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112 Of old respect and gratitude, are [mine].    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  assonance (phonological): and/gratitude /æ/

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113 Surely the Masians too, and those of Egypt,    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10

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114 Have not forgot [my] sire: the eye of Rome    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  assonance (phonological): not/forgot/of /ɒ/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): my/sire/eye /aɪ/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): Have/of /v/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): not/forgot /t/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): my/Rome /m/

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115 And the Praetorian camp have long revered,    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  assonance (phonological): And/camp/have /æ/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): Praetorian/revered /r/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): have/revered /v/

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116 With customed awe, the daughter, sister, wife,    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  assonance (phonological): With/sister /ɪ/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): awe/daughter /ɔː/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): With/wife /w/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): customed/sister /s/

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117 And mother of their Caesars. Ha! by Juno,    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  consonance (phonological): mother/their /ð/

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118 It bears a noble semblance. On this base    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  alliteration (phonological): bears/base /b/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): It/this /ɪ/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): bears/noble/base /b/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): noble/On /n/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): semblance/this/base /s/

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119 My great revenge shall rise; or say we sound    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  alliteration (phonological): revenge/rise /r/
Figure:  alliteration (phonological): say/sound /s/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): My/rise /aɪ/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): great/say /eɪ/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): revenge/sound /n/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): revenge/rise /r/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): say/sound /s/

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120 The trump of liberty; there will not want,    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  alliteration (phonological): will/want /w/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): of/not/want /ɒ/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): liberty/will /ɪ/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): trump/not /t/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): liberty/will /l/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): will/want /w/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): not/want /n/

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121 Even in the servile senate, ears to own    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  alliteration (phonological): servile/senate /s/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): Even/servile /v/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): in/senate/own /n/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): servile/senate /s/

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122 Her spirit-stirring voice; Soranus there,    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  alliteration (phonological): spirit-stirring/Soranus /s/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): Her/spirit-stirring /ɜː/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): spirit-stirring/Soranus /r/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): spirit-stirring/voice/Soranus /s/

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123 And Cassius; Veto too, and Thrasea,    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  assonance (phonological): And/and /æ/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): Cassius/Thrasea /s/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): Veto/too /t/

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124 Minds of the antique cast, rough, stubborn souls,    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  alliteration (phonological): stubborn/souls /s/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): rough/stubborn /ʌ/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): Minds/antique /n/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): antique/cast /k/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): cast/stubborn/souls /s/

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125 That struggle with the yoke. How shall the spark    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  alliteration (phonological): struggle/spark /s/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): That/shall /æ/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): That/with /ð/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): struggle/spark /s/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): yoke/spark /k/

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126 Unquenchable, that glows within their breasts,    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  alliteration (phonological): that/their /ð/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): Unquenchable/breasts /e/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): Unquenchable/within /n/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): that/within/their /ð/

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127 Blaze into freedom, when the idle herd    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  consonance (phonological): into/when /n/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): freedom/idle/herd /d/

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128 (Slaves from the womb, created but to stare    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  alliteration (phonological): Slaves/stare /s/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): Slaves/created /eɪ/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): womb/to /uː/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): Slaves/stare /s/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): from/womb /m/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): created/but /t/

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129 And bellow in the Circus) yet will start,    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  alliteration (phonological): Circus/start /s/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): bellow/yet /e/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): in/will /ɪ/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): bellow/will /l/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): Circus/start /s/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): yet/start /t/
Figure:  anaphora (morphological): And

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130 And shake 'em at the name of liberty,    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  assonance (phonological): And/at /æ/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): shake/name /eɪ/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): 'em/name /m/
Figure:  anaphora (morphological): And
Figure:  aphaeresis (morphological): 'em

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131 Stung by a senseless word, a vain tradition,    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  alliteration (phonological): Stung/senseless /s/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): Stung/senseless /s/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): senseless/vain /n/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): word/tradition /d/

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132 As there were magic in it? Wrinkled beldams    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  assonance (phonological): As/magic /æ/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): in/it/Wrinkled /ɪ/

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133 Teach it their grandchildren, as somewhat rare    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  assonance (phonological): their/rare /eə/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): grandchildren/as /æ/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): Teach/it/somewhat /t/

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134 That anciently appeared, but when, extends    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  assonance (phonological): when/extends /e/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): That/but /t/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): anciently/when/extends /n/

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135 Beyond their chronicle— oh! 'tis a cause    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  alliteration (phonological): chronicle/cause /k/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): Beyond/'tis /ɪ/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): Beyond/chronicle /ɒ/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): Beyond/chronicle /n/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): chronicle/cause /k/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): 'tis/cause /z/
Figure:  aphaeresis (morphological): 'tis
Figure:  ecphonesis (pragmatic): oh...

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136 To arm the hand of childhood, and rebrace    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  assonance (phonological): hand/and /æ/

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137 The slackened sinews of time-wearied age.    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  alliteration (phonological): slackened/sinews /s/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): slackened/sinews /s/

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138 Yes, we may meet, ungrateful boy, we may!    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  alliteration (phonological): we/we /w/
Figure:  alliteration (phonological): may/meet/may /m/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): we/meet/we /iː/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): may/ungrateful/may /eɪ/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): we/we /w/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): may/meet/may /m/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): meet/ungrateful /t/
Figure:  diacope (morphological): we/we
Figure:  diacope (morphological): may/may

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139 Again the buried Genius of old Rome    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  assonance (phonological): Again/buried /e/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): old/Rome /əʊ/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): Again/Genius /n/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): buried/Rome /r/

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140 Shall from the dust uprear his reverend head,    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  alliteration (phonological): his/head /h/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): dust/uprear /ʌ/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): reverend/head /e/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): dust/head /d/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): uprear/reverend /r/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): his/head /h/

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141 Roused by the shout of millions: there before    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  alliteration (phonological): by/before /b/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): Roused/shout /aʊ/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): millions/before /ɪ/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): by/before /b/

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142 His high tribunal thou and I appear.    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  alliteration (phonological): His/high /h/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): high/tribunal/I /aɪ/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): His/high /h/

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143 Let majesty sit on thy awful brow    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  consonance (phonological): Let/sit /t/

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144 And lighten from thy eye: around thee call    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  alliteration (phonological): thy/thee /ð/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): lighten/thy/eye /aɪ/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): lighten/call /l/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): thy/thee /ð/

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145 The gilded swarm that wantons in the sunshine    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  alliteration (phonological): swarm/sunshine /s/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): gilded/in /ɪ/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): swarm/sunshine /s/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): wantons/in/sunshine /n/

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146 Of thy full favour; Seneca be there    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  alliteration (phonological): thy/there /ð/
Figure:  alliteration (phonological): full/favour /f/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): Of/favour /v/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): thy/there /ð/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): full/favour /f/

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147 In gorgeous phrase of laboured eloquence    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  assonance (phonological): phrase/laboured /eɪ/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): laboured/eloquence /l/

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148 To dress thy plea, and Burrhus strengthen it    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  assonance (phonological): dress/strengthen /e/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): dress/strengthen /s/

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149 With his plain soldier's oath and honest seeming.    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  alliteration (phonological): soldier's/seeming /s/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): With/his /ɪ/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): soldier's/oath /əʊ/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): plain/honest /n/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): soldier's/seeming /s/

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150 Against thee, liberty and Agrippina:    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  assonance (phonological): thee/Agrippina /iː/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): Against/Agrippina /n/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): Against/Agrippina /g/

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151 The world, the prize; and fair befall the victors.    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  assonance (phonological): befall/victors /ɪ/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): world/befall /l/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): fair/befall /f/

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152 But soft! why do I waste the fruitless hours    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  alliteration (phonological): why/waste /w/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): why/I /aɪ/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): do/fruitless /uː/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): But/fruitless /t/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): soft/fruitless /f/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): soft/waste /s/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): why/waste /w/

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153 In threats unexecuted? Haste thee, fly    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  assonance (phonological): threats/unexecuted /e/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): In/unexecuted /n/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): threats/unexecuted /t/

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154 These hated walls that seem to mock my shame,    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  alliteration (phonological): These/that /ð/
Figure:  alliteration (phonological): mock/my /m/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): These/seem /iː/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): hated/shame /eɪ/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): These/that /ð/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): hated/that /t/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): seem/mock/my/shame /m/

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155 And cast me forth in duty to their lord.    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  assonance (phonological): forth/lord /ɔː/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): duty/to /uː/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): duty/lord /d/

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156 My thought aches at him; not the basilisk    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  assonance (phonological): at/basilisk /æ/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): him/basilisk /ɪ/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): My/him /m/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): thought/at/not /t/

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157 More deadly to the sight than is to me    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  alliteration (phonological): More/me /m/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): to/to /uː/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): More/me /m/

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158 The cool injurious eye of frozen kindness.    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  alliteration (phonological): cool/kindness /k/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): eye/kindness /aɪ/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): cool/kindness /k/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): injurious/kindness /n/

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159 I will not meet its poison. Let him feel    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  assonance (phonological): will/its/him /ɪ/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): meet/feel /iː/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): will/Let/feel /l/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): not/meet/its/Let /t/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): meet/him /m/

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160 Before he sees me. Yes, I will be gone,    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  assonance (phonological): Before/will /ɪ/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): he/sees/me/be /iː/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): sees/Yes /s/

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161 But not to Antium— all shall be confessed,    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  assonance (phonological): Antium/shall /æ/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): But/not /t/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): not/Antium/confessed /n/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): all/shall /l/

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162 Whate'er the frivolous tongue of giddy fame    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  alliteration (phonological): frivolous/fame /f/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): Whate'er/of /ɒ/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): frivolous/giddy /ɪ/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): Whate'er/tongue /t/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): frivolous/of /v/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): frivolous/fame /f/
Figure:  syncope (morphological): Whate'er

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163 Has spread among the crowd; things that but whispered    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  assonance (phonological): Has/that /æ/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): among/but /ʌ/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): things/whispered /ɪ/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): spread/crowd /d/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): spread/whispered /s/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): among/things /ŋ/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): that/but /t/

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164 Have arched the hearer's brow and riveted    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  alliteration (phonological): Have/hearer's /h/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): Have/and /æ/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): Have/hearer's /h/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): Have/riveted /v/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): hearer's/riveted /r/

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165 His eyes in fearful ecstasy: no matter    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  assonance (phonological): His/in /ɪ/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): His/eyes /z/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): in/no /n/

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166 What, so it be strange, and dreadful.— Sorceries,    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  alliteration (phonological): strange/Sorceries /s/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): What/it /t/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): so/strange/Sorceries /s/

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167 Assassinations, poisonings; the deeper    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  consonance (phonological): Assassinations/poisonings /s/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): poisonings/deeper /p/

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168 My guilt, the blacker his ingratitude.    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  assonance (phonological): guilt/his/ingratitude /ɪ/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): blacker/ingratitude /æ/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): guilt/ingratitude /g/

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169 And you, ye manes of ambition's victims,    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  alliteration (phonological): you/ye /j/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): And/ambition's /æ/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): ambition's/victims /ɪ/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): you/ye /j/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): manes/ambition's /m/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): of/victims /v/
Figure:  polyptoton (morphological): you/ye

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170 Enshrined Claudius, with the pitied ghosts    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  assonance (phonological): Enshrined/with/pitied /ɪ/

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171 Of the Syllani, doomed to early death    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  alliteration (phonological): doomed/death /d/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): doomed/to /uː/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): Syllani/early /l/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): doomed/death /d/

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172 (Ye unavailing horrors, fruitless crimes!),    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10

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173 If from the realms of night my voice ye hear,    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  assonance (phonological): from/of /ɒ/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): night/my /aɪ/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): If/from /f/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): from/my /m/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): of/voice /v/

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174 In lieu of penitence and vain remorse,    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  assonance (phonological): In/remorse /ɪ/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): In/penitence/vain /n/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): of/vain /v/

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175 Accept my vengeance. Though by me ye bled,    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  alliteration (phonological): my/me /m/
Figure:  alliteration (phonological): by/bled /b/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): Accept/vengeance/bled /e/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): my/by /aɪ/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): me/ye /iː/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): my/me /m/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): by/bled /b/

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176 He was the cause. My love, my fears for him,    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  alliteration (phonological): He/him /h/
Figure:  alliteration (phonological): My/my /m/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): cause/for /ɔː/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): My/my /aɪ/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): He/him /h/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): was/cause/fears /z/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): My/my/him /m/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): fears/for /f/
Figure:  diacope (morphological): My/my

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177 Dried the soft springs of pity in my heart,    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  alliteration (phonological): soft/springs /s/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): Dried/my /aɪ/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): soft/of /ɒ/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): springs/pity/in /ɪ/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): soft/springs /s/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): pity/heart /t/

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178 And froze them up with deadly cruelty.    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  assonance (phonological): them/deadly /e/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): them/with /ð/

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179 Yet if your injured shades demand my fate,    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  alliteration (phonological): Yet/your /j/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): if/injured/demand /ɪ/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): shades/fate /eɪ/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): Yet/fate /t/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): Yet/your /j/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): if/fate /f/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): injured/demand /n/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): shades/demand /d/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): demand/my /m/

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180 If murder cries for murder, blood for blood,    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  alliteration (phonological): murder/murder /m/
Figure:  alliteration (phonological): blood/blood /b/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): murder/murder /ɜː/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): for/for /ɔː/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): blood/blood /ʌ/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): If/for/for /f/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): murder/murder/blood/blood /d/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): murder/murder /m/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): blood/blood /b/
Figure:  diacope (morphological): murder/murder
Figure:  diacope (morphological): for/for
Figure:  diacope (morphological): blood/blood

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181 Let me not fall alone; but crush his pride,    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  assonance (phonological): but/crush /ʌ/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): Let/fall/alone /l/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): Let/not/but /t/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): not/alone /n/

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182 And sink the traitor in his mother's ruin. Exeunt.    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  assonance (phonological): sink/in/his /ɪ/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): in/ruin /n/

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Scene II.

[Otho, Poppaea]

OTHO

183 Thus far we're safe. Thanks to the rosy queen    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  consonance (phonological): Thus/safe /s/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): far/safe /f/

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184 Of amorous thefts: and had her wanton son    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  alliteration (phonological): had/her /h/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): Of/wanton /ɒ/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): amorous/and/had /æ/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): had/her /h/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): wanton/son /n/

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185 Lent us his wings, we could not have beguiled    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  alliteration (phonological): his/have /h/
Figure:  alliteration (phonological): wings/we /w/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): his/wings /ɪ/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): Lent/beguiled /l/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): Lent/not /n/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): his/have /h/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): wings/we /w/

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186 With more elusive speed the dazzled sight    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  alliteration (phonological): speed/sight /s/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): With/elusive /ɪ/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): elusive/speed/sight /s/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): speed/dazzled /d/

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187 Of wakeful jealousy. Be gay securely;    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  assonance (phonological): wakeful/gay /eɪ/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): wakeful/securely /k/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): jealousy/securely /l/

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188 Dispel, my fair, with smiles, the timorous cloud    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  assonance (phonological): Dispel/with/timorous /ɪ/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): my/smiles /aɪ/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): Dispel/smiles /l/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): Dispel/cloud /d/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): Dispel/smiles /s/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): my/timorous /m/

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189 That hangs on thy clear brow. So Helen looked,    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  alliteration (phonological): That/thy /ð/
Figure:  alliteration (phonological): hangs/Helen /h/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): That/hangs /æ/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): That/thy /ð/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): hangs/Helen /h/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): clear/looked /k/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): Helen/looked /l/

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190 So her white neck reclined, so was she borne    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  assonance (phonological): So/so /əʊ/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): white/reclined /aɪ/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): So/so /s/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): white/was /w/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): neck/reclined/borne /n/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): neck/reclined /k/
Figure:  diacope (morphological): So/so

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191 By the young Trojan to his gilded bark    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  alliteration (phonological): By/bark /b/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): his/gilded /ɪ/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): By/bark /b/

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192 With fond reluctance, yielding modesty,    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  assonance (phonological): With/reluctance /ɪ/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): fond/modesty /ɒ/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): reluctance/yielding /l/

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193 And oft reverted eye, as if she knew not    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  alliteration (phonological): knew/not /n/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): And/as /æ/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): oft/not /ɒ/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): oft/if /f/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): reverted/not /t/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): knew/not /n/

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194 Whether she feared or wished to be pursued.    
Metre:  -+|-+|-+|-+|-+/   |   Syllables:  10
Figure:  alliteration (phonological): Whether/wished /w/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): she/be /iː/
Figure:  assonance (phonological): to/pursued /uː/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): Whether/wished /w/
Figure:  consonance (phonological): she/wished /ʃ/

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Expanding the poem lines (+) shows notes and queries taken from various critical editions of Gray's works, as well as those contributed by users of the Archive. There are 0 textual and 15 explanatory notes/queries.

All notes and queries are shown by default.

0 Agrippina, a Tragedy 2 Explanatory

Title/Paratext] ""Agrippina" was begun in London [...]" J. Bradshaw, 1891.

""Agrippina" was begun in London in December, 1741. The first scene was sent to West in Hertfordshire about 31st March, 1742, with the following remarks:—"I take the liberty of sending you a long speech of Agrippina; much too long, but I could be glad you would retrench it. Aceronia, you may remember, had been giving quiet counsels. I fancy, if it ever be finished, it will be in the nature of Nat. Lee's "Bedlam Tragedy," which had twenty-five acts and some odd scenes." On the 4th April West wrote in reply, "I own, in general, I think Agrippina's speech too long; but how to retrench it I know not. But I have something else to say, and that is in relation to the style, which appears to me too antiquated."
    Gray replied defending his style, observing, "the language of the age is never the language of poetry; except among the French, whose verse, where the thought or image does not support it, differs in nothing from prose. Our poetry, on the contrary, has a language peculiar to itself, to which almost every one that has written has added something by enriching it with foreign idioms and derivatives, nay sometimes words of their own composition or invention. Shakespeare and Milton have been great creators this way."
    To this West replied in a very interesting letter; and in his next letter Gray dismisses the subject thus: "As to Agrippina, I begin to be of your opinion, and find myself (as women of their children) less enamoured of my productions the older they grow. She is laid up to sleep till next summer, so bid her good-night."
    Gray never resumed it; possibly West's death made him unwilling to take up again what had been a subject of interest to each; also, as he told Norton Nicholls, the labour of polishing a long poem would be intolerable. Gray thought the first ten or twelve lines of "Agrippina" the best, but West preferred the last fourteen in the first scene.
    This fragment no longer exists in Gray's MS."

The Poetical Works of Thomas Gray: English and Latin. Edited with an introduction, life, notes and a bibliography by John Bradshaw. The Aldine edition of the British poets series. London: George Bell and sons, 1891, 245-246.

Title/Paratext] "We place the fragmentary Agrippina [...]" D.C. Tovey, 1922 [1st ed. 1898].

"We place the fragmentary Agrippina here, because the few lines of the second scene are an attempt to complete it, made, as we believe, about the same time as the Ode on the Cat was written. (Cf. n. on the Eton Ode l. 29.) Gray communicated part of the first scene to Walpole in Dec. 1746 (''I send you a scene in a tragedy; if it don't make you cry it will make you laugh; and so it moves some passion, that I take to be enough''). In January 1747 he sent him the remainder of the scene, ''that was lost in a wilderness of papers.'' Walpole had evidently complimented him on the portion already sent, and Gray says ''Certainly you do her too much honour; she seemed to me to talk like an old boy, all in figures and mere poetry, instead of nature and the language of real passion. Do you remember 'Approchez-vous Néron'? Who would not rather have thought of that half line, than all Mr Rowe's flowers of eloquence?''
''Approcbez-vous Néron'' is from Racine's Britannicus (IV. ii. 1); it is thus that Racine's Agrippina re-asserts her authority over her son who has put her under arrest. Burrhus has just been urging her to remember in the coming interview that Nero is her emperor. (Compare the counsels of Gray's Aceronia.) A like master-stroke of Racine's is the ''Tu peux sortir'' with which Agrippina dismisses Nero after upbraiding him with the murder of Britannicus (V. vi. ad fin.).
Gray saw Britannicus in Paris on the 21st of May 1739, as he tells West next day; ''all the characters, particularly Agrippina and Nero, done to perfection.'' Walpole was no doubt with him and would remember the effect given to these touches on the stage. Those who choose to compare the Argument of Agrippina with Britannicus will see that Racine is copied almost with a schoolboy's fidelity; the projected union of Junia and Britannicus, favoured by Agrippina, would have found its counterpart in that of Otho and Poppaea, favoured by the same person from analogous motives; the passion of Nero would again have been the obstacle; Nero was to have been in hiding once more to overhear a conversation; the part of Burrhus would have been played by Seneca; the pretended friend Narcissus would have reappeared in Agrippina in the person of Anicetus, captain of the guard; Agrippina's confidante Albina is replaced by Aceronia.
Gray is his own best critic on Agrippina, the interest of which lies mainly in the remarks to which it gave occasion. He returned from abroad with a vivid impression of the French classic stage,—of its constructive power, which he could only imitate with Chinese exactness,—and its dramatic point, which as he confesses, perhaps too humbly, he could not imitate at all. Johnson says ''It was certainly no loss to the English stage that Agrippina was never completed.'' Nevertheless, if Gray had completed this effort of his 26th year, Agrippina would have compared favourably with anything which the English stage produced at the same epoch. If Gray had been prevailed upon by Walpole, it might have appeared about the same time as Johnson's own Irene, which was certainly no gain to our dramatic literature; and in structure (thanks to Racine), in diction, and above all in the management of tragic blank verse Agrippina would have much excelled Johnson's cumbrous performance. Or it might have been acted side by side with Thomson's posthumous Coriolanus, the last of those tragedies of his which Voltaire found 'frigid,'—an epithet with which we now conveniently damn almost all eighteenth century Tragedy, Voltaire's included; and it would at least have achieved that dignity of expression which Thomson in his plays only affected, whilst it would have been free from the vulgarisms of which he was often capable.
Gray tells Walpole (Jan. 1747) ''Poor West put a stop to that tragic torrent he saw breaking in upon him''—but it does not seem that he acquiesced in the main article of West's criticism. West wrote (April 4, 1742) ''The style appears to me too antiquated. Racine was of another opinion [he means to Gray]: he nowhere gives you the phrases of Ronsard. I should rather choose a style that bordered upon [Addison's] Cato, than upon Shakespeare. One may imitate (if one can) Shakespeare's manner, his surprising strokes of true nature, his expressive force in painting characters, and all his other beauties; preserving at the same time our own language. Were Shakespeare alive now, he would write in a different style from what he did.''
Gray's reply has often been quoted, and has for us a wider scope than belongs to it as a defence of his Agrippina. ''As to the matter of stile, I have this to say: The language of the age is never the language of poetry; except among the French, whose verse, where the thought or image does not support it, differs in nothing from prose. Our poetry, on the contrary, has a language peculiar to itself; to which almost every one, that has written, has added something by enriching it with foreign idioms and derivatives: nay sometimes words of their own composition or invention. Shakespeare and Milton have been great creators this way; and no one more licentious than Pope or Dryden, who perpetually borrow expressions from the former.'' Then he gives instances from Dryden, among which it is curious to note such words as 'mood,' 'smouldering,' 'beverage,' 'array,' and 'way ward' mentioned as having an antiquated sound; a fact which may teach us how much even the current language of our time owes to the principle for which Gray contends, and which he followed in his verse."

Gray's English Poems, Original and Translated from the Norse and Welsh. Edited by Duncan C. Tovey. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1922 [1st ed. 1898], 109-111.

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Dramatis Personae

Agrippina, the Empress mother.
Nero, the Emperor.
Poppaea, believed to be in love with Otho.
Otho, a young man of quality, in love with Poppaea.
Seneca, the Emperor's preceptor.
Anicetus, Captain of the Guards.
Demetrius, the Cynic, friend to Seneca.
Aceronia, confidant to Agrippina.

Scene, the Emperor's villa at Baiae


The Argument

The drama opens with the indignation of Agrippina, at receiving
her son's orders from Anicetus to remove from Baiae, and to
have her guard taken from her. At this time Otho having
conveyed Poppaea from the house of her husband Rufus Crispinus,
brings her to Baiae, where he means to conceal her among the
croud; or, if his fraud is discovered, to have recourse to the
Emperor's authority; but, knowing the lawless temper of Nero, he
determines not to have recourse to that expedient, but on the
utmost necessity. In the meantime he commits her to the care of
Anicetus, whom he takes to be his friend, and in whose age he
thinks he may safely confide. Nero is not yet come to Baiae:
but Seneca, whom he sends before him, informs Agrippina of the
accusation concerning Rubellius Plancus, and desires her to
clear herself, which she does briefly; but demands to see her
son, who, on his arrival, acquits her of all suspicion, and
restores her to her honours. In the meanwhile Anicetus, to
whose care Poppaea had been entrusted by Otho, contrives the
following plot to ruin Agrippina: He betrays his trust to Otho,
and brings Nero, as it were by chance, to the sight of the
beautiful Poppaea; the Emperor is immediately struck with her
charms, and she, by a feigned resistance, increases his passion;
tho', in reality, she is from the first dazzled with the
prospect of empire, and forgets Otho: She therefore joins with
Anicetus in his design of ruining Agrippina, soon perceiving
that it will be for her interest. Otho hearing that the Emperor
had seen Poppaea, is much enraged; but not knowing that this
interview was obtained thro' the treachery of Anicetus, is
readily persuaded by him to see Agrippina in secret, and
acquaint her with his fears that her son Nero would marry
Poppaea. Agrippina, to support her own power, and to wean the
Emperor from the love of Poppaea, gives Otho encouragement, and
promises to support him. Anicetus secretly introduces Nero to
hear their discourse; who resolves immediately on his mother's
death, and, by Anicetus's means, to destroy her by drowning. A
solemn feast, in honour of their reconciliation, is to be made;
after which she being to go by sea to Bauli, the ship is so
contrived as to sink or crush her; she escapes by accident, and
returns to Baiae. In this interval Otho has an interview with
Poppaea; and being duped a second time by Anicetus and her,
determines to fly with her into Greece, by means of a vessel
which is to be furnished by Anicetus; but he, pretending to
remove Poppaea on board in the night, conveys her to Nero's
apartment: She there encourages and determines Nero to banish
Otho, and finish the horrid deed he had attempted on his
mother. Anicetus undertakes to execute his resolves; and, under
pretence of a plot upon the Emperor's life, is sent with a
guard to murder Agrippina, who is still at Baiae in imminent
fear, and irresolute how to conduct herself. The account of her
death, and the Emperor's horrour and fruitless remorse,
finishes the drama.


ACT I.   Scene I.

[Agrippina, Aceronia]

AGRIPPINA

1 'Tis well, begone! your errand is performed.
[Speaks as to Anicetus entering.]
2 The message needs no comment. Tell your master,
3 His mother shall obey him. Say you saw her
4 Yielding due reverence to his high command:
5 Alone, unguarded and without a lictor
6 As fits the daughter of Germanicus.
7 Say, she retired to Antium; there to tend
8 Her household cares, a woman's best employment.
9 What if you add, how she turned pale and trembled:
10 You think, you spied a tear stand in her eye,
11 And would have dropped, but that her pride restrained it?
12 (Go! you can paint it well) 'twill profit you,
13 And please the stripling. Yet 'twould dash his joy
14 To hear the spirit of Britannicus
15 Yet walks on earth: at least there are who know
16 Without a spell to raise, and bid it fire
17 A thousand haughty hearts, unused to shake
18 When a boy frowns, nor to be lured with smiles
19 To taste of hollow kindness, or partake
20 His hospitable board: they are aware
21 Of the unpledged bowl, they love not Aconite.

ACERONIA

22 He's gone; and much I hope these walls alone
23 And the mute air are privy to your passion.
24 Forgive your servant's fears, who sees the danger
25 Which fierce resentment cannot fail to raise
26 In haughty youth and irritated power.

AGRIPPINA

27 And dost thou talk to me, to me, of danger,
28 Of haughty youth and irritated power,
29 To her that gave it being, her that armed
30 This painted Jove, and taught his novice hand
31 To aim the forked bolt; while he stood trembling,
32 Scared at the sound and dazzled with its brightness?

33 'Tis like, thou hast forgot, when yet a stranger
34 To adoration, to the grateful steam
35 Of flattery's incense and obsequious vows 1 Explanatory

35.2-3 flattery's incense] "cf. the "Elegy," 71, 72; [...]" J. Bradshaw, 1891.

"cf. the "Elegy," 71, 72; "Ode for Music," 79."

The Poetical Works of Thomas Gray: English and Latin. Edited with an introduction, life, notes and a bibliography by John Bradshaw. The Aldine edition of the British poets series. London: George Bell and sons, 1891, 246.

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36 From voluntary realms, a puny boy,
37 Decked with no other lustre than the blood
38 Of Agrippina's race, he lived unknown 1 Explanatory

38.1-6 Of ... unknown] "Cf. the "Elegy," 118." J. Bradshaw, 1891.

"Cf. the "Elegy," 118."

The Poetical Works of Thomas Gray: English and Latin. Edited with an introduction, life, notes and a bibliography by John Bradshaw. The Aldine edition of the British poets series. London: George Bell and sons, 1891, 246.

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39 To fame or fortune; haply eyed at distance
40 Some edileship, ambitious of the power
41 To judge of weights and measures; scarcely dared
42 On expectation's strongest wing to soar 1 Explanatory

42.1-6 On ... soar] "Writing to Stonehewer when sending [...]" J. Bradshaw, 1891.

"Writing to Stonehewer when sending the "Ode for Music" for the perusal of the Duke of Grafton, Gray says: "I did not see why Gratitude should sit silent and leave it to Expectation to sing, who certainly would have sung and that à gorge deployee upon such an occasion.""

The Poetical Works of Thomas Gray: English and Latin. Edited with an introduction, life, notes and a bibliography by John Bradshaw. The Aldine edition of the British poets series. London: George Bell and sons, 1891, 246.

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43 High as the consulate, that empty shade
44 Of long-forgotten liberty: when I
45 Oped his young eye to bear the blaze of greatness;
46 Showed him where empire towered, and bade him strike
47 The noble quarry. Gods! then was the time
48 To shrink from danger; fear might then have worn
49 The mask of prudence; but a heart like mine,
50 A heart that glows with the pure Julian fire,
51 If bright ambition from her craggy seat
52 Display the radiant prize, will mount undaunted,
53 Gain the rough heights, and grasp the dangerous honour.

ACERONIA

54 Through various life I have pursued your steps,
55 Have seen your soul, and wondered at its daring:
56 Hence rise my fears. Nor am I yet to learn
57 How vast the debt of gratitude which Nero
58 To such a mother owes; the world you gave him
59 Suffices not to pay the obligation.

60 I well remember too (for I was present)
61 When in a secret and dead hour of night,
62 Due sacrifice performed with barbarous rites
63 Of muttered charms and solemn invocation,
64 You bade the Magi call the dreadful powers
65 That read futurity, to know the fate
66 Impending o'er your son: their answer was,
67 If the son reign, the mother perishes.
68 Perish (you cried) the mother! reign the son!
69 He reigns, the rest is heaven's; who oft has bade,
70 Even when its will seemed wrote in lines of blood,
71 The unthought event disclose a whiter meaning.
72 Think too how oft in weak and sickly minds
73 The sweets of kindness lavishly indulged
74 Rankle to gall; and benefits too great
75 To be repaid, sit heavy on the soul,
76 As unrequited wrongs. The willing homage
77 Of prostrate Rome, the senate's joint applause,
78 The riches of the earth, the train of pleasures
79 That wait on youth and arbitrary sway:
80 These were your gift, and with them you bestowed
81 The very power he has to be ungrateful.

AGRIPPINA

82 Thus ever grave and undisturbed reflection
83 Pours its cool dictates in the madding ear 1 Explanatory

83.7 madding] "Cf. "Elegy," 73." J. Bradshaw, 1891.

"Cf. "Elegy," 73."

The Poetical Works of Thomas Gray: English and Latin. Edited with an introduction, life, notes and a bibliography by John Bradshaw. The Aldine edition of the British poets series. London: George Bell and sons, 1891, 246.

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84 Of rage, and thinks to quench the fire it feels not.
85 Sayest thou I must be cautious, must be silent,
86 And tremble at the phantom I have raised?
87 Carry to him thy timid counsels. He
88 Perchance may heed 'em: tell him too, that one
89 Who had such liberal power to give, may still
90 With equal power resume that gift, and raise
91 A tempest that shall shake her own creation
92 To its original atoms— tell me! say,
93 This mighty emperor, this dreaded hero,
94 Has he beheld the glittering front of war? 1 Explanatory

94.1-8 Has ... war?] "Cf. "Progress of Poesy," 53." J. Bradshaw, 1891.

"Cf. "Progress of Poesy," 53."

The Poetical Works of Thomas Gray: English and Latin. Edited with an introduction, life, notes and a bibliography by John Bradshaw. The Aldine edition of the British poets series. London: George Bell and sons, 1891, 246.

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95 Knows his soft ear the trumpet's thrilling voice,
96 And outcry of the battle? Have his limbs
97 Sweat under iron harness? Is he not
98 The silken son of dalliance, nursed in ease 1 Explanatory

98.2-5 silken ... dalliance,] "Cf. Shakespeare's "Henry V." ii. [...]" J. Bradshaw, 1891.

"Cf. Shakespeare's "Henry V." ii. Chorus:

"And silken dalliance in the wardrobe lies.""

The Poetical Works of Thomas Gray: English and Latin. Edited with an introduction, life, notes and a bibliography by John Bradshaw. The Aldine edition of the British poets series. London: George Bell and sons, 1891, 246.

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99 And pleasure's flowery lap? Rubellius lives,
100 And Sylla has his friends, though schooled by fear
101 To bow the supple knee, and court the times
102 With shows of fair obeisance; and a call
103 Like mine might serve belike to wake pretensions
104 Drowsier than theirs, who boast the genuine blood
105 Of our imperial house. [Cannot my nod]
106 Rouse [up] eight hardy legions, wont to stem
107 With stubborn nerves the tide, and face the rigour
108 Of bleak Germania's snows[?] Four, not less brave,
109 That in Armenia quell the Parthian force
110 Under the warlike Corbulo, by [me]
111 Marked for their leader: these, by ties confirmed
112 Of old respect and gratitude, are [mine]. 1 Explanatory

112.2-3 old respect] "Old respect is from Milton, [...]" J. Bradshaw, 1891.

"Old respect is from Milton, "Samson Agonistes," 333."

The Poetical Works of Thomas Gray: English and Latin. Edited with an introduction, life, notes and a bibliography by John Bradshaw. The Aldine edition of the British poets series. London: George Bell and sons, 1891, 246.

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113 Surely the Masians too, and those of Egypt,
114 Have not forgot [my] sire: the eye of Rome
115 And the Praetorian camp have long revered,
116 With customed awe, the daughter, sister, wife,
117 And mother of their Caesars. Ha! by Juno,
118 It bears a noble semblance. On this base
119 My great revenge shall rise; or say we sound
120 The trump of liberty; there will not want,
121 Even in the servile senate, ears to own
122 Her spirit-stirring voice; Soranus there, 1 Explanatory

122.2 spirit-stirring] "Cf. "Othello," iii. 3:— "The [...]" J. Bradshaw, 1891.

"Cf. "Othello," iii. 3:—

"The spirit-stirring drum, the ear-piercing fife.""

The Poetical Works of Thomas Gray: English and Latin. Edited with an introduction, life, notes and a bibliography by John Bradshaw. The Aldine edition of the British poets series. London: George Bell and sons, 1891, 246.

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123 And Cassius; Veto too, and Thrasea,
124 Minds of the antique cast, rough, stubborn souls,
125 That struggle with the yoke. How shall the spark
126 Unquenchable, that glows within their breasts,
127 Blaze into freedom, when the idle herd
128 (Slaves from the womb, created but to stare
129 And bellow in the Circus) yet will start,
130 And shake 'em at the name of liberty,
131 Stung by a senseless word, a vain tradition,
132 As there were magic in it? Wrinkled beldams
133 Teach it their grandchildren, as somewhat rare
134 That anciently appeared, but when, extends
135 Beyond their chronicle— oh! 'tis a cause
136 To arm the hand of childhood, and rebrace
137 The slackened sinews of time-wearied age.

138 Yes, we may meet, ungrateful boy, we may!
139 Again the buried Genius of old Rome
140 Shall from the dust uprear his reverend head,
141 Roused by the shout of millions: there before
142 His high tribunal thou and I appear.
143 Let majesty sit on thy awful brow
144 And lighten from thy eye: around thee call
145 The gilded swarm that wantons in the sunshine 1 Explanatory

145.2-3 gilded swarm] "See the "Bard," 69." J. Bradshaw, 1891.

"See the "Bard," 69."

The Poetical Works of Thomas Gray: English and Latin. Edited with an introduction, life, notes and a bibliography by John Bradshaw. The Aldine edition of the British poets series. London: George Bell and sons, 1891, 246.

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146 Of thy full favour; Seneca be there
147 In gorgeous phrase of laboured eloquence 1 Explanatory

147.2-3 gorgeous phrase] "cf. 'gorgeous Tragedy,' "Il Penseroso," [...]" J. Bradshaw, 1891.

"cf. 'gorgeous Tragedy,' "Il Penseroso," 97."

The Poetical Works of Thomas Gray: English and Latin. Edited with an introduction, life, notes and a bibliography by John Bradshaw. The Aldine edition of the British poets series. London: George Bell and sons, 1891, 246.

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148 To dress thy plea, and Burrhus strengthen it
149 With his plain soldier's oath and honest seeming.
150 Against thee, liberty and Agrippina:
151 The world, the prize; and fair befall the victors.

152 But soft! why do I waste the fruitless hours 1 Explanatory

152.8 fruitless] "cf. "Sonnet on the Death [...]" J. Bradshaw, 1891.

"cf. "Sonnet on the Death of West," 13."

The Poetical Works of Thomas Gray: English and Latin. Edited with an introduction, life, notes and a bibliography by John Bradshaw. The Aldine edition of the British poets series. London: George Bell and sons, 1891, 246.

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153 In threats unexecuted? Haste thee, fly
154 These hated walls that seem to mock my shame,
155 And cast me forth in duty to their lord.

156 My thought aches at him; not the basilisk
157 More deadly to the sight than is to me
158 The cool injurious eye of frozen kindness.
159 I will not meet its poison. Let him feel
160 Before he sees me. Yes, I will be gone,
161 But not to Antium— all shall be confessed,
162 Whate'er the frivolous tongue of giddy fame
163 Has spread among the crowd; things that but whispered
164 Have arched the hearer's brow and riveted 1 Explanatory

164.2-5 arched ... brow] "Cf. Pope's "Prologue to the [...]" J. Bradshaw, 1891.

"Cf. Pope's "Prologue to the Satires":—

"Whom have I hurt? has poet yet or peer
Lost the arched brows or Parnassian sneer?"—95."

The Poetical Works of Thomas Gray: English and Latin. Edited with an introduction, life, notes and a bibliography by John Bradshaw. The Aldine edition of the British poets series. London: George Bell and sons, 1891, 246.

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165 His eyes in fearful ecstasy: no matter
166 What, so it be strange, and dreadful.— Sorceries,
167 Assassinations, poisonings; the deeper
168 My guilt, the blacker his ingratitude.

169 And you, ye manes of ambition's victims,
170 Enshrined Claudius, with the pitied ghosts
171 Of the Syllani, doomed to early death
172 (Ye unavailing horrors, fruitless crimes!),
173 If from the realms of night my voice ye hear,
174 In lieu of penitence and vain remorse,
175 Accept my vengeance. Though by me ye bled,
176 He was the cause. My love, my fears for him,
177 Dried the soft springs of pity in my heart,
178 And froze them up with deadly cruelty.
179 Yet if your injured shades demand my fate,
180 If murder cries for murder, blood for blood,
181 Let me not fall alone; but crush his pride,
182 And sink the traitor in his mother's ruin. Exeunt.


Scene II.

[Otho, Poppaea]

OTHO

183 Thus far we're safe. Thanks to the rosy queen
184 Of amorous thefts: and had her wanton son
185 Lent us his wings, we could not have beguiled
186 With more elusive speed the dazzled sight 1 Explanatory

186.3 elusive] "cf. "Ode on Eton," 29 [...]" J. Bradshaw, 1891.

"cf. "Ode on Eton," 29 and Note."

The Poetical Works of Thomas Gray: English and Latin. Edited with an introduction, life, notes and a bibliography by John Bradshaw. The Aldine edition of the British poets series. London: George Bell and sons, 1891, 246.

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187 Of wakeful jealousy. Be gay securely;
188 Dispel, my fair, with smiles, the timorous cloud
189 That hangs on thy clear brow. So Helen looked,
190 So her white neck reclined, so was she borne
191 By the young Trojan to his gilded bark
192 With fond reluctance, yielding modesty,
193 And oft reverted eye, as if she knew not
194 Whether she feared or wished to be pursued.

Works cited

  • The Poetical Works of Thomas Gray: English and Latin. Edited with an introduction, life, notes and a bibliography by John Bradshaw. The Aldine edition of the British poets series. London: George Bell and sons, 1891.
  • Gray's English Poems, Original and Translated from the Norse and Welsh. Edited by Duncan C. Tovey. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1922 [1st ed. 1898].

Spelling has been modernized throughout, except in case of conscious archaisms. Contractions, italics and initial capitalization have been largely eliminated, except where of real import. Obvious errors have been silently corrected, punctuation has been supplied. The editor would like to express his gratitude to the library staff of the Göttingen State and University Library (SUB Göttingen) for their invaluable assistance.

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Editions in the Digital Library

  • 1775: The Poems of Mr. Gray. To which are prefixed Memoirs of his Life and Writings by W[illiam]. Mason. York, 1775.
  • 1799: The Poetical Works of Thomas Gray, LL.B. London, 1799.
  • 1800: The Poetical Works of Thomas Gray, LL.B. London, 1800.
  • 1800: The Poems of Gray. A new edition. London, 1800.
  • 1814: The Works of Thomas Gray, Vol. I. Ed. Thomas James Mathias. London, 1814.
  • 1816: The Works of Thomas Gray, Vol. I. Ed. John Mitford. London, 1816.
  • 1826: The Poetical Works of Thomas Gray. London, 1826.
  • 1836: The Works of Thomas Gray, Volume I. Ed. John Mitford. London, 1836.