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"Ode for Music"

"Ode for Music"


Air

1 'Hence, avaunt, ('tis holy ground)
2 'Comus and his midnight-crew,
3 'And Ignorance with looks profound,
4 'And dreaming Sloth of pallid hue,
5 'Mad Sedition's cry profane,
6 'Servitude that hugs her chain,
7 'Nor in these consecrated bowers
8 'Let painted Flattery hide her serpent-train in flowers.

Chorus

9 'Nor Envy base nor creeping Gain
10 'Dare the Muse's walk to stain,
11 'While bright-eyed Science watches round:
12 'Hence, away, 'tis holy ground!'

Recitative

13 From yonder realms of empyrean day
14 Bursts on my ear the indignant lay:
15 There sit the sainted sage, the bard divine,
16 The few whom genius gave to shine
17 Through every unborn age and undiscovered clime.
18 Rapt in celestial transport they, (accomp.)
19 Yet hither oft a glance from high
20 They send of tender sympathy
21 To bless the place, where on their opening soul
22 First the genuine ardour stole.
23 'Twas Milton struck the deep-toned shell,
24 And, as the choral warblings round him swell,
25 Meek Newton's self bends from his state sublime,
26 And nods his hoary head and listens to the rhyme.

Air

27 'Ye brown o'er-arching groves,
28 'That Contemplation loves,
29 'Where willowy Camus lingers with delight!
30 'Oft at the blush of dawn
31 'I trod your level lawn,
32 'Oft wooed the gleam of Cynthia silver-bright
33 'In cloisters dim, far from the haunts of Folly,
34 'With Freedom by my side, and soft-eyed Melancholy.'

Recitative

35 But hark! the portals sound and, pacing forth
36 With solemn steps and slow,
37 High potentates and dames of royal birth
38 And mitred fathers in long order go:
39 Great Edward with the lilies on his brow
40 From haughty Gallia torn,
41 And sad Chatillon, on her bridal morn
42 That wept her bleeding love, and princely Clare,
43 And Anjou's heroine, and the paler rose,
44 The rival of her crown and of her woes,
45 And either Henry there,
46 The murthered saint and the majestic lord,
47 That broke the bonds of Rome,
48 (Their tears, their little triumphs o'er, (accomp.)
49 Their human passions now no more,
50 Save charity, that glows beyond the tomb).
51 All that on Granta's fruitful plain
52 Rich streams of regal bounty poured,
53 And bade these awful fanes and turrets rise,
54 To hail their Fitzroy's festal morning come;
55 And thus they speak in soft accord
56 The liquid language of the skies.

Quartetto

57 'What is grandeur, what is power?
58 'Heavier toil, superior pain.
59 'What the bright reward we gain?
60 'The grateful memory of the good.
61 'Sweet is the breath of vernal shower,
62 'The bee's collected treasures sweet,
63 'Sweet music's melting fall, but sweeter yet
64 'The still small voice of gratitude.'

Recitative

65 Foremost and leaning from her golden cloud
66 The venerable Margaret see!
67 'Welcome, my noble son,' (she cries aloud)
68 'To this, thy kindred train, and me:
69 'Pleased in thy lineaments we trace
70 'A Tudor's fire, a Beaufort's grace.

Air

71 'Thy liberal heart, thy judging eye,
72 'The flower unheeded shall descry,
73 'And bid it round heaven's altars shed
74 'The fragrance of its blushing head:
75 'Shall raise from earth the latent gem
76 'To glitter on the diadem.

Recitative

77 'Lo, Granta waits to lead her blooming band,
78 'Not obvious, not obtrusive, she
79 'No vulgar praise, no venal incense flings;
80 'Nor dares with courtly tongue refined
81 'Profane thy inborn royalty of mind:
82 'She reveres herself and thee.
83 'With modest pride to grace thy youthful brow
84 'The laureate wreath, that Cecil wore, she brings,
85 'And to thy just, thy gentle hand
86 'Submits the fasces of her sway,
87 'While spirits blest above and men below
88 'Join with glad voice the loud symphonious lay.

Grand Chorus

89 'Through the wild waves as they roar
90 'With watchful eye and dauntless mien
91 'Thy steady course of honour keep,
92 'Nor fear the rocks nor seek the shore:
93 'The star of Brunswick smiles serene,
94 'And gilds the horrors of the deep.'

FINIS

Expanding the poem lines shows notes and queries taken from various critical editions of Gray's works, as well as those contributed by users of the Archive. There are 9 textual and 214 explanatory notes/queries.

All notes and queries are shown by default.

0 "Ode for Music" 14 Explanatory, 9 Textual

Title/Paratext] "[The Installation Ode was the [...]" E. Gosse, 1884.

"[The Installation Ode was the latest of Gray's poems. He offered to write it on the occasion of the installation of Augustus-Henry Fitzroy, Duke of Grafton, as Chancellor of the University. He began it at the close of 1748 [i.e. 1768], and in April 1749 [i.e. 1769] it was finished. For three months, Dr. J. Randall of Kings, the music professor in the University, waited regularly on Gray with the score. Dr. Burney was much disappointed at not being asked to set the poem. It was performed in the Senate-House on the occasion for which it was written, and was published anonymously at the expense of the University in quarto form: - ''Ode performed in the Senate-House at Cambridge, July 1, 1769, at the Installation of Augustus-Henry Fitzroy, Duke of Grafton, Chancellor of the University. Cambridge, 1769.'' See Gosse's Life of Gray, pp. 182-185. - Ed.]"

The Works of Thomas Gray: In Prose and Verse. Ed. by Edmund Gosse, in four vols. London: MacMillan and Co., 1912 [1st edition 1884], vol. i, 92.

Title/Paratext] "This was the last poem [...]" W. Lyon Phelps, 1894.

"This was the last poem Gray wrote. It was published in the year of its composition (1769) as a thin quarto of eight pages, with the following title-page: Ode Performed in the Senate-House at Cambridge, July 1, 1769, At the Installation of his Grace Augustus-Henry Fitzroy, Duke of Grafton, Chancellor of the University. Set to Music by Dr. Randal, Professor of Music. Cambridge, Printed by J. Archdeacon Printer to the University. M.DCC.LXIX. The title over the first page of the text is simply Ode for Music. It is interesting to notice that Gray's name nowhere appears in the quarto. In this volume this ode is for the first time given exactly as it appeared in the original 1769 edition."

Selections from the Poetry and Prose of Thomas Gray. Ed. with an introduction and notes by William Lyon Phelps. The Athenaeum press series. Boston: Ginn & company, 1894, 174.

Title/Paratext] "The circumstances which called it [...]" W. Lyon Phelps, 1894.

"The circumstances which called it into being are as follows: The Duke of Grafton had in 1768 made Gray Professor of Modern History and Languages at Cambridge, an honor for which the poet felt genuine gratitude. When the Duke was elected Chancellor of the University, Gray offered to write an Ode to be sung at the Installation on July 1, 1769. Gray performed this task with reluctance, and evidently felt that the poetry was more artificial than spontaneous."

Selections from the Poetry and Prose of Thomas Gray. Ed. with an introduction and notes by William Lyon Phelps. The Athenaeum press series. Boston: Ginn & company, 1894, 174/175.

Title/Paratext] "The first stanza, with its [...]" W. Lyon Phelps, 1894.

"The first stanza, with its personified abstractions, reminds one of his earliest period, and immediately suggests Milton's minor poems.
The poem has really added nothing to Gray's reputation, and the following contemporary criticism seems just: ''The Installation Ode of Mr. Gray is a recent instance of flattery bestowed indiscriminately on the great, and will do no credit to that celebrated writer.'' - Joseph Cockfield to the Rev. Weeden Butler, 27 July 1769, Nichols, Illustr. of Lit., V, 797.
Mason appended notes on the personages mentioned in this Ode. I have made use of these often, but with corrections and additions."

Selections from the Poetry and Prose of Thomas Gray. Ed. with an introduction and notes by William Lyon Phelps. The Athenaeum press series. Boston: Ginn & company, 1894, 175.

Title/Paratext] "The full title of this [...]" J. Bradshaw, 1903 [1st ed. 1891].

"The full title of this Ode explains the occasion of its being written; it is: - Ode | Performed in the | Senate-House at Cambridge | July 1, 1769, | at the Installation of His Grace Augustus-Henry Fitzroy | Duke of Grafton | Chancellor of the University. | Set to Music by | Dr. Randal, | Professor of Music. | Cambridge | Printed for J. Archdeacon Printer to the University | 1769."

The Poetical Works of Thomas Gray: English and Latin. Edited with an introduction, life, notes and a bibliography by John Bradshaw. Reprinted edition. The Aldine edition of the British poets series. London: George Bell and sons, 1903 [1st edition 1891], 236.

Title/Paratext] "The Duke of Grafton, as [...]" J. Bradshaw, 1903 [1st ed. 1891].

"The Duke of Grafton, as Prime Minister, had in July, 1768, conferred on Gray the Professorship of Modern History at Cambridge, and when he was elected to succeed, as Chancellor, the Duke of Newcastle, who died in November, 1768, Gray determined to show his gratitude by writing the usual Installation Ode. He refers to it thus in a letter of July 16, 1769, to Dr. Beattie (author of ''The Minstrel''): - ''I thought myself bound in gratitude to his Grace, unasked, to take upon me the task of writing those verses which are usually set to music. I do not think them worth sending you, because they are by nature doomed to live but a single day; or, if their existence be prolonged beyond that date it is only by means of newspaper parodies and witless criticism. This sort of abuse I had reason to expect, but do not think it worth while to avoid.'' And in a note to Mr. Stonehewer, the Duke's secretary, to whom he sent the Ode in manuscript, on the 12th June, for the Duke's perusal, he says: - ''I did not intend the Duke should have heard me till he could not help it. You are desired to make the best excuses you can to his Grace for the liberty I have taken of praising him to his face, but as somebody must necessarily do this I did not see why Gratitude should sit silent and leave it to Expectation to sing, who certainly would have sung, and that a gorge deployee upon such an occasion.''"

The Poetical Works of Thomas Gray: English and Latin. Edited with an introduction, life, notes and a bibliography by John Bradshaw. Reprinted edition. The Aldine edition of the British poets series. London: George Bell and sons, 1903 [1st edition 1891], 236.

Title/Paratext] "It was this Duke of [...]" J. Bradshaw, 1903 [1st ed. 1891].

"It was this Duke of Grafton to whom ''Junius'' addressed some of his ''Letters.'' Here are two passages from them in strong contrast to Gray's eulogy: - ''The first uniform principle, or, if I may call it, the genius, of your life has carried you through every possible change and contradiction of conduct, without the momentary imputation or colour of a virtue, and the wildest spirit of inconsistency has never once betrayed you into a wise or honourable action.'' And as regards his descent from royalty he tells him: - ''The character of the reputed ancestors of some men has made it possible for their descendants to be vicious in the extreme without being degenerate. Those of your Grace, for instance, left no distressing example of virtue even to their legitimate posterity, and you may look back with pleasure to an illustrious pedigree, in which heraldry has left not one single good quality on record to insult or upbraid you.''
In a letter to the Duke, dated 8th July, 1769, ''Junius'' refers to this ''Installation Ode:'' - ''even the venal muse, though happiest in fiction, will forget your virtues.''
The compliments Gray paid the Duke in this Ode led to a parody on the Epitaph in the ''Elegy,'' in a newspaper in 1769, which is to be found cut out therefrom and pasted on the last page of Vol. II. of Upcott's edition of Gray in the British Museum. The letter runs as follows: - ''As a certain Church-yard Poet has deviated from the principles he once profest, it is very fitting that the necessary alterations should be made in his Epitaph.'' - Marcus.

Epitaph

''Here rests his head upon the lap of earth,
   One nor to fortune nor to fame unknown;
Fair science frown'd not on his humble birth,
    And smooth-tongued flatt'ry mark'd him for her own.

Large was his wish - in this he was sincere -
    Fate did a recompence as largely send,
Gave the poor C . . r four hundred pounds a year,
    And made a d . . . y Minister his friend.

No further seek his deeds to bring to light,
    For, ah! he offer'd at Corruption's shrine;
And basely strove to wash an Ethiop white,
    While Truth and Honour bled in ev'ry line.''"

The Poetical Works of Thomas Gray: English and Latin. Edited with an introduction, life, notes and a bibliography by John Bradshaw. Reprinted edition. The Aldine edition of the British poets series. London: George Bell and sons, 1903 [1st edition 1891], 237/238.

Title/Paratext] "Gray finished the Ode in [...]" J. Bradshaw, 1903 [1st ed. 1891].

"Gray finished the Ode in April, 1769; it was his last poetical composition, and except the Odes from the Norse and the Welsh, written in 1761 and 1764 [''The Fatal Sisters'' (1761), ''Descent of Odin'' (1761), and ''Triumphs of Owen'' (1764)], he had published nothing new for twelve years, i.e., since the ''Progress of Poesy'' and the ''Bard'' appeared in 1757.
The ''Ode for the Installation'' was published by the University in quarto, the second title being ''Ode for Music.'' It was never edited by Gray, and when Mason published it in his edition of Gray's Poems, he entitled it simply ''For Music,'' and added, the epithet ''Irregular''; he also, ''for the sake of uniformity in the page, divided the Ode into stanzas, and discarded the musical divisions of Recitative, Air, and Chorus.'' Mason has been followed in most of these changes, and in no other edition (except that edited by me for Messrs. Macmillan and Co.) has the Ode been correctly printed, as now, with the divisions, etc., as it appeared when first published."

The Poetical Works of Thomas Gray: English and Latin. Edited with an introduction, life, notes and a bibliography by John Bradshaw. Reprinted edition. The Aldine edition of the British poets series. London: George Bell and sons, 1903 [1st edition 1891], 238.

Title/Paratext] "A still more noteworthy point [...]" J. Bradshaw, 1903 [1st ed. 1891].

"A still more noteworthy point is that Gray has been credited with some of Mason's work. There were no notes in the University edition of the Ode, but Mason wrote notes in the manner of the historical notes which Gray wrote for the ''Bard,'' and placed them as footnotes to the Ode in his edition of 1775, and Gray's notes on the other poems as footnotes in their proper places; he also had additional notes of his own as an appendix. With the exception of Mathias, every editor of Gray concluded that the footnotes to the Ode were by Gray, and all the notes which I have marked Mason, from line 41 to 84, are in all other editions (except Mathias') marked Gray. The note on ''Elizabeth de Burg'' [line 42] ought to have led them to suspect that the reference to ''the poet'' was not by Gray; still stranger is it that it has escaped so many editors to the present day that Mason states in the appendix that the notes are by himself: - ''I have added,'' he says, ''at the bottom of the page a number of explanatory notes, which this Ode seemed to want still more than that which preceded it [the ''Bard'']; especially when given not to the University only, but the public in general, who may be reasonably supposed to know little of the particular founders of different colleges and their history here alluded to.''"

The Poetical Works of Thomas Gray: English and Latin. Edited with an introduction, life, notes and a bibliography by John Bradshaw. Reprinted edition. The Aldine edition of the British poets series. London: George Bell and sons, 1903 [1st edition 1891], 238/239.

Title/Paratext] "The full title of this [...]" D.C. Tovey, 1922 [1st ed. 1898].

"The full title of this Ode is 'Ode | Performed in the | Senate-House at Cambridge | July 1, 1769, | at the Installation of his Grace Augustus-Henry Fitzroy | Duke of Grafton | Chancellor of the University. | Set to Music by | Dr Randal, | Professor of Music. | Cambridge | Printed for J. Archdeacon, Printer to the University | 1769.'   Bradshaw.
The title on the first page of the text is simply Ode for Music. It is interesting to notice that Gray's name nowhere appears in this, a thin quarto of eight pages.   Phelps."

Gray's English Poems, Original and Translated from the Norse and Welsh. Edited by Duncan C. Tovey. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1922 [1st ed. 1898], 280.

Title/Paratext] " 'After I had quitted [...]" D.C. Tovey, 1922 [1st ed. 1898].

" 'After I had quitted the University, I always paid Mr Gray an annual visit; during one of these it was he determined, as he said, to offer with a good grace what he could not have refused if it had been asked of him, viz. to write the Installation Ode for the Duke of Grafton [footnote: Who had appointed him to the History Professorship]. This, however, he considered as a sort of task, to which he submitted with great reluctance: and it was long after he first mentioned it to me before he could prevail with himself to begin the composition. One morning, when I went to him as usual after breakfast, I knocked at his door, which he threw open, and exclaimed with a loud voice: ''Hence, avaunt! 'tis holy ground.''
I was so astonished, that I almost feared he was out of his senses: but this was the beginning of the Ode which he had just composed.' Nicholls, Reminiscences.
Mathias, who tells the story after Nicholls, adds, ''Mr Gray in a moment after resumed his pleasant manner, and repeating several verses... said, 'Well, I have begun the Ode, and now I shall finish it.' ''
That Nicholls correctly interpreted Gray's feelings on writing the Ode appears from the poet's letter to Beattie (July 16, '69), to the same effect. Of the verses themselves Gray says, ''I do not think them worth sending you, because they are by nature doomed to live but a single day; or if their existence be prolonged beyond that date it is only by means of newspaper parodies and witless criticism.''
Among Gray's friends at Pembroke, Delaval 'as loud as ever' tried to dissuade him from the task; ''he fell upon me,'' says Gray, ''tooth and nail (but in a very friendly manner), only on the credit of the newspaper, for he knows nothing further: told me of the obloquy that waits for me; and said everything to deter me from doing a thing that is already done. Mason sat by and heard it all with a world of complacency.'' (To Brown, March, 1769.) Mason's complacency may have been due to the fact that he had written the Ode (at the Installation, July 1, 1749) of the previous Chancellor, the Duke of Newcastle, and since Gray had forestalled him this time, was not displeased that the task would be troublesome. It is thus that Mason concluded his praise of 'Fobus, the old fizzling Duke, the old hubble-bubble Duke,' as he and Gray delighted to call Newcastle:

''Meanwhile the Muse shall snatch the trump of Fame,
And lift her swelling accents high,
To tell the world that Pelham's name
Is dear to learning as to liberty.''
Gray's task was completed by the 2Oth of April [1769]. ''I know it will bring abuse enough upon me,'' he wrote to Wharton in announcing the fact. It had to be done: for it was to be set to music, and rehearsed before July 1. ''Odicle,'' he says to Nicholls (24th of June), ''has been rehearsed here again and again, and the boys (the undergraduates) have got scraps by heart: I expect to see it torn piece-meal in the North-Briton before it is born. the musick is as good as the words: the former might be taken for mine and the latter for Dr Randal's. if you will come, you shall see it and sing in it with Mr Norris and Mr Clerke the Clergyman, and Mr Reinholt, and Miss Thomas, great names at Salisbury and Gloster musick-meeting and well versed in Judas Maccabaeus.'' "

Gray's English Poems, Original and Translated from the Norse and Welsh. Edited by Duncan C. Tovey. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1922 [1st ed. 1898], 280/281.

Title/Paratext] "This Ode - good as [...]" D.C. Tovey, 1922 [1st ed. 1898].

"This Ode - good as it is amongst Installation Odes - is another evidence that Gray never wrote at his best under pressure. In it he sometimes falls back upon his earlier and most conventional manner.
It seems that Stonhewer (Grafton's Secretary) showed the Duke the Ode before the ceremony. Gray writes to Stonhewer from Cambridge (June 12):
''I did not intend the Duke should have heard me till he could not help it. You are desired to make the best excuses you can to his Grace for the liberty I have taken of praising him to his face; but as somebody was necessarily to do this, I did not see why Gratitude should sit silent and leave it to Expectation to sing, who certainly would have sung, and that a gorge deployee upon such an occasion.''
Gray is Gratitude; but who is or might be Expectation? If there is any thought of Mason, whom Gray was wont to flout on his insatiable hunger for preferment, Mason himself either did not see it, or chose to ignore it; for he is our sole authority for this letter.
Gray of course did not escape attack. On July 8, 1769, Junius addresses the Duke of Grafton, and reminding him that the king may discard him without the forms of regret, says, ''You will then have reason to be thankful if you are permitted to retire to that seat of learning, which, in contemplation of the system of your life, the comparative purity of your manners with those of their high steward [the Earl of Hardwicke], and a thousand other recommending circumstances, has chosen you to encourage the growing virtue of their youth, and to preside over their education. Whenever the spirit of distributing prebends and bishopricks shall have departed from you, you will find that learned seminary perfectly recovered from the delirium of an installation, and, what in truth it ought to be, once more a peaceful scene of slumber and thoughtless meditation. The venerable tutors of the University will no longer distress your modesty, by proposing you for a pattern to their pupils. The learned dulness of declamation will be silent: and even the venal muse, though happiest in fiction [footnote: An allusion to Waller's answer, when Charles II. asked him, why he had praised the Protector so much better than he had praised him.], will forget your virtues.''
Dr Bradshaw quotes 'a parody on the Epitaph in the Elegy in a newspaper in 1769, which is to be found cut out therefrom and pasted on the last page of vol. II. of Upcott's edition of Gray in the British Museum. The letter runs as follows: ''As a certain Church-yard Poet has deviated from the principles he once profest, it is very fitting that necessary alterations should be made in his Epitaph. - Marcus.

''Epitaph.
Here rests his head upon the lap of earth,
    One not to fortune nor to fame unknown;
Fair science frown'd not on his humble birth,
    And smooth-tongued flatt'ry mark'd him for her own.

Large was his wish - in this he was sincere---
    Fate did a recompence as largely send,
Gave the poor C . . r four hundred pounds a year,
    And made a d . . y Minister his friend.

No further seek his deeds to bring to light,
    For, ah! he offer'd at Corruption's shrine;
And basely strove to wash an Ethiop white,
    While Truth and Honour bled in ev'ry line.'' '[']
The first notes to the Ode were by Mason; and are here printed from his edition of 1775."

Gray's English Poems, Original and Translated from the Norse and Welsh. Edited by Duncan C. Tovey. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1922 [1st ed. 1898], 281-283.

Title/Paratext] "[Through the influence of the [...]" A.L. Poole/L. Whibley, 1950 [1st ed. 1919].

"[Through the influence of the Duke of Grafton, Gray had obtained, in July 1768, the chair of Regius Professor of Modern History at Cambridge. When, therefore, the Duke was appointed Chancellor of the University in November, he wrote the ode to be performed at the installation. It was completed in April 1769, and is the last of Gray's metrical compositions. The full title which was appended to the first edition, published at Cambridge in 1769, is: Ode performed in the Senate-House at Cambridge, July 1, 1769, At the Installation of his Grace Augustus-Henry Fitzroy, Duke of Grafton, Chancellor of the University. Set to Music by Dr. Randal, Professor of Music. (Gray's name is not on the title-page.) The text here printed is taken from this edition.]"

The Poems of Gray and Collins. Edited by Austin Lane Poole. Revised by Leonard Whibley. Third edition. Oxford editions of standard authors series. London: Oxford UP, 1937, reprinted 1950 [1st ed. 1919], 109.

Title/Paratext] "This was set to music [...]" W.C. Eppstein, 1959.

"This was set to music by Randall of King's, and was performed at Cambridge, in 1769, at the installation of the Duke of Grafton as Chancellor of the University. Of the composition Gray writes: ''The worst employment I have had has been to write something for music against the Duke of Grafton comes to Cambridge. I must comfort myself with the intention, for I know it will bring abuse enough on me''. There is a dignity about the procession of the pious founders as they pass before us, but the poem is somewhat redolent with the odour of the midnight oil, and the final couplet: ''The Star of Brunswick smiles serene, / And gilds the horrors of the deep'', is happily the only really absurd sentence that he wrote. The poem is of interest because it indicates that the rich stream of poetry was drying up, and in fact Gray published no verse after this."

Poems of Thomas Gray. Edited by W. C. Eppstein. London and Glasgow: Blackie & Son Ltd., 1959, xxvi.

Title/Paratext] "First printed anonymously in 1769, [...]" H.W. Starr/J.R. Hendrickson, 1966.

"First printed anonymously in 1769, the text followed here: Ode / performed in the / Senate-House at Cambridge, / July 1, 1769, / at the installation of His Grace / Augustus-Henry Fitzroy, / Duke of Grafton, / Chancellor of the University./ Set to Music by / Dr. Randal, / Professor of Music. / Cambridge, / Printed by J. Archdeacon Printer to the University. / M.DCC.LXIX. On the first page of text the title is simply ODE for MUSIC. It was reprinted in M[ason], ii. [37]-43, as ODE / VII. / For Music. / Irregular. and with the substitution of Roman numerals for the headings Air, Recitative, &c. Terminal quotation marks have been added to ll. 12, 34, 64, 94."

The Complete Poems of Thomas Gray: English, Latin and Greek. Edited by Herbert W. Starr and J. R. Hendrickson. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1966, 48.

Title/Paratext] "Augustus Henry Fitzroy (1735-1811), third [...]" H.W. Starr/J.R. Hendrickson, 1966.

"Augustus Henry Fitzroy (1735-1811), third Duke of Grafton and Prime Minister, in July 1768 had obtained the Regius Professorship of Modern History at Cambridge for Gray, probably through the prompting of Gray's friend Richard Stonhewer, who was Grafton's private secretary (although the Duchess later said that the appointment was her husband's unsolicited gift). Grafton was elected Chancellor of the University in Nov. 1768; and, although Gray disliked occasional poetry, he felt that gratitude obliged him to offer, unasked, to write the ode to be performed when Grafton was installed on 1 July 1769. He finished the poem, the last one he wrote, in April. He wrote to Stonhewer (12 June 1769, T & W no. 497): '... as somebody was necessarily to do this, I did not see why Gratitude should sit silent and leave it to Expectation to sing, who certainly would have sung, and that a gorge deployee ['with an open throat', 'excessively'] upon such an occasion.' Gray did not have a high opinion of the poem, as he told Beattie (16 July 1769, T & W no. 501): 'I do not think them worth sending you, because they are by nature doom'd to live but a single day, or if their existence is prolong'd beyond that date, it is only by means of news-paper parodies, & witless criticism. this sort of abuse I had reason to expect, but did not think it worth while to avoid it.' His expectations were fulfilled when the following item appeared in the London Chronicle of 27-29 July:

As a certain Church-yard Poet has deviated from the principles he once profest, it is very fitting that the necessary alterations should be made in his Epitaph. - Marcus.

Epitaph

Here rests his head upon the lap of earth,
    One nor to fortune nor to fame unknown;
Fair science frown'd not on his humble birth,
    And smooth-tongued flatt'ry mark'd him for her own.

Large was his wish - in this he was sincere -
    Fate did a recompence as largely send,
Gave the poor C[u]r four hundred pounds a year,
    And made a d[irt]y Minister his friend.

No further seek his deeds to bring to light,
    For, ah! he offer'd at Corruption's shrine;
And basely strove to wash an Ethiop white,
    While Truth and Honour bled in ev'ry line.
See also Nicholls's Reminiscences, T & W, Appendix Z, pp. 1300-1. For poetic echoes, especially of Milton, see Mitford, Bradshaw, and Tovey."

The Complete Poems of Thomas Gray: English, Latin and Greek. Edited by Herbert W. Starr and J. R. Hendrickson. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1966, 226/227.

Title/Paratext] "The text is that of [...]" R. Lonsdale, 1969.

"The text is that of the original edn, which G[ray]. did not alter. It was entitled 'Ode performed in the Senate-House at Cambridge, July 1, 1769, at the installation of His Grace Augustus-Henry Fitzroy, Duke of Grafton, Chancellor of the University. Set to music by Dr. Randal, Professor of Music.' It is entitled 'Ode for Music' on the first page of the text."

The Poems of Thomas Gray, William Collins, Oliver Goldsmith. Edited by Roger Lonsdale. Longman Annotated English Poets Series. London and Harlow: Longmans, 1969, 267.

Title/Paratext] "Written between 6 Feb. and [...]" R. Lonsdale, 1969.

"Written between 6 Feb. and 20 April 1769. The Duke of Grafton, who as Prime Minister had been directly responsible for G[ray].'s appointment as Regius Professor of History at Cambridge in July 1768, was elected Chancellor of the University on 29 Nov. 1768. As in 1749, when the Duke of Newcastle became Chancellor, a special ode, set to music by a well-known composer, was to be performed at the Installation ceremony on 1 July 1769. G. explained to James Beattie, not long after the ceremony: 'I thought myself bound in gratitude to his Grace unasked to take upon me the task of writing those verses that are usually set to musick on this occasion' (Corresp iii 1070). Norton Nicholls, in his 'Reminiscences of Gray', recalled the mingled distaste and sense of dute with which G. set about the task (Corresp iii 1300-1):
'After I had quitted the University I always paid Mr Gray an annual visit; during one of these visits it was he determined as he said to offer with a good grace what he could not have refused if it had been asked of him viz., to write the Installation Ode for the Duke of Grafton. This however he considered as a sort of task to which he submitted with great reluctance; & it was long after he first mentioned it to me, before he could prevail with himself to begin the composition. One morning when I went to him as usual after breakfast, I knocked at his door, which he threw open, & exclaimed with a loud voice

''Hence! avaunt, 'tis holy ground.''
I was so astonished, that I almost feared he was out of his senses; but this was the beginning of the Ode which he had just composed.'"

The Poems of Thomas Gray, William Collins, Oliver Goldsmith. Edited by Roger Lonsdale. Longman Annotated English Poets Series. London and Harlow: Longmans, 1969, 264/265.

Title/Paratext] "The composer of the ode's [...]" R. Lonsdale, 1969.

"The composer of the ode's setting was originally to have been Charles Burney, who was later better known as a historian of music. Burney wrote to William Mason, who was then in Cambridge, early in 1769 to find out whether G[ray]. had made any progress and also the kind of setting he favoured. Mason, who had himself written the Installation Ode in 1749, replied on 6 Feb. that he had seen G. but that 'I do not find that he has yet begun to write the Ode tho he seems to intend it, but all that I can learn from him about it is that he wishes even the intention should be, at present, kept a secret & therefore I think you will oblige him if you keep it such'. Mason added that Burney had rightly assumed that G. would have preferred a setting in the Italian rather than the German musical style: 'yet I would not advise you to endeavour to please him, but the University, therefore the Councel is: Out roar Old Handel if you can.' Eventually, however, there was an altercation between Burney and the Duke of Grafton over the expense of bringing London musicians to Cambridge for the performance and a new composer was appointed, John Randall, Professor of Music at Cambridge. For a full account, see R. Lonsdale, Dr Burney (1965) pp. 77-8."

The Poems of Thomas Gray, William Collins, Oliver Goldsmith. Edited by Roger Lonsdale. Longman Annotated English Poets Series. London and Harlow: Longmans, 1969, 265.

Title/Paratext] "G[ray]. had completed the Ode [...]" R. Lonsdale, 1969.

"G[ray]. had completed the Ode by 20 April 1769, when he wrote to Wharton, 'I must comfort myself with the intention: for I know it will bring abuse enough on me. however it is done, & given to the V:Chancellor, & there is an end' (Corresp iii 1057). As he wrote at about the same time to James Brown, his friend Delaval had recently 'told me of the obloquy that waits for me; and said everything to deter me from doing a thing that is already done' (Corresp iii 1058). The abuse of his poetical flattery of Grafton duly came from the Duke's political enemies. G. anticipated it in a letter to his friend Stonhewer, Grafton's secretary, on 12 June 1769, when he sent the Ode for the Duke's perusal (Corresp iii 1062):
'I did not intend the Duke should have heard me till he could not help it. You are desired to make the best excuses you can to his Grace for the liberty I have taken of praising him to his face; but as somebody was necessarily to do this, I did not see why Gratitude should sit silent and leave it to Expectation to sing, who certainly would have sung, and that a gorge deployee upon such an occasion.'"

The Poems of Thomas Gray, William Collins, Oliver Goldsmith. Edited by Roger Lonsdale. Longman Annotated English Poets Series. London and Harlow: Longmans, 1969, 265/266.

Title/Paratext] "G[ray]. was never anything but [...]" R. Lonsdale, 1969.

"G[ray]. was never anything but deprecating about the Ode. On 24 June he told Nichols (Corresp iii 1065): 'Odicle has been rehearsed again & again, & the boys have got scraps by heart: I expect to see it torn piece-meal in the North-Briton, before it is born. the musick is as good as the words: the former might be taken for mine, & the latter for Dr. Randal's.' Joseph Cradock, in his Literary Memoirs (1828) i 107-8, recalled accompanying G. to one of these rehearsals:

'The pleasantest morning that I passed then at Cambridge, was in company with Mr. Gray and some critics, at the rehearsal of the musick for his own Ode, previous to its grand performance in the Senate-house; and I thought, that as he had so many directions to give, and such nice distinctions to make, it was well he had to deal with the pliant Dr. Randall, rather than with some of the very able Composers or Professors that I could have named in the Metropolis. Mr. Gray was not much more comfortable at this time than the Chancellor himself; for the press was teeming with abuse, and a very satirical parody was then preparing, which soon afterwards appeared. His own delicious Ode, indeed, must always be admired, yet this envenomed shaft was so pointedly levelled at him, though he affected in his letter to Mason to disregard it, that, with his fine feelings, he was not only annoyed, but very seriously hurt by it.'

There is a long description of Grafton's installation as Chancellor in a letter from Richard Gough to Benjamin Foster, in J. Nichols, Literary Illustrations of the Eighteenth Century v 315-16. Gough thought the Ode 'well set and performed, but charged with obscurity'; but the company departed cheerfully enough to 'dinner, in Trinity College Hall, where were seven turtles and a number of haunches, with plenty of Claret, Champagne, and Burgundy.' Nichols (v 797) also quotes another immediate reaction, by Joseph Cockfield, who considered the Ode 'a recent instance of flattery bestowed indiscriminately on the great' and that it would 'do no credit to that celebrated writer.' The fact that G.'s name did not appear on the titlepage when the Ode was published was owing less, perhaps, to any hope he might still have of retaining his anonymity, than to a wish to indicate that he was not particularly proud of what he had always regarded as essentially a duty. When Norton Nicholls told him in June 1769 that he had been approached by Woodyer, a Cambridge bookseller, who was hoping to 'be admitted to a share in the sale of the Ode', G. replied that 'I do not publish at all, but Alma Mater prints 5 or 600 for the company' (Corresp iii 1063, 1068). The Ode was in fact printed for the University by Archdeacon, the University printer, in eight pages quarto. Later in the year a 2nd edn was issued.
Writing to James Beattie about 'those verses' in mid-July 1769, G. told him, 'I do not think them worth sending you, because they are by nature doom'd to live but a single day, or if their existence is prolong'd beyond that date, it is only by means of news-paper parodies, & witless criticism. this sort of abuse I had reason to expect, but did not think it worth while to avoid it' (Corresp iii 1070). One parody of the Ode had appeared almost immediately in the St James's Chronicle, 1-4 July 1769, beginning 'Hence! avaunt! 'tis venal ground'; and a second followed in the London Chronicle 14-16 Sept. beginning 'Hence! avaunt! 'tis sacred ground, / Let pallid Freedom ever fly'. The Ode itself and these two parodies were reprinted together in the New Foundling Hospital for Wit (1771) iv 8-22. The London Chronicle for 27-9 July 1769 also published a parody of the epitaph of the Elegy, which contained such lines as 'And smooth-tongued flatt'ry mark'd him for her own.' Junius, in his fifth letter to the Duke of Grafton, dated 8 July 1769, had described the time when Grafton would be dismissed from office and would retire to a Cambridge which would then ignore him: 'The learned dulness of declamation will be silent; and even the venal Muse, though happiest in fiction, will forget your virtues.'
As Cradock realized, G. was much more sensitive to this sort of abuse than he would admit; it is also unlikely that the Ode received much praise on purely literary grounds. Beattie assured him that it was 'the finest panegyrical poem in the world' (Corresp iii 1082), but a more typical comment may have been George Montagu's reference to it in a letter to Walpole as 'Grey's copy of himself' (Walpole Correspondence x 284). Mason, when he printed it in 1775, considered that the fact that it was 'irregular' was a serious defect, but otherwise thought it, 'in point of lyrical arrangement and expression, to be equal to most of his other Odes'. He added some explanatory notes for the benefit of the general public, 'who may be reasonably supposed to know little of the particular founders of different Colleges and their history here alluded to' (Poems pp. 37-43, 97-8). One rather unexpected admirer of the poem was Coleridge, who thought that 'there is something very majestic in Gray's Installation Ode; but as to The Bard and the rest of his lyrics, I must say I think them frigid and artificial', Specimens of the Table Talk of Samuel Taylor Coleridge (1835) ii 271.
For some useful background to the genre in which G. was writing, see R. M. Myers, 'Neo-classical criticism of the Ode for Music', PMLA lxii (1947) 399-421."

The Poems of Thomas Gray, William Collins, Oliver Goldsmith. Edited by Roger Lonsdale. Longman Annotated English Poets Series. London and Harlow: Longmans, 1969, 266/267.

Title/Paratext] "This is Gray's last important [...]" J. Reeves, 1973.

"This is Gray's last important poem. It was written for his patron the Duke of Grafton and was performed at his installation as Chancellor to the University in 1769. Gray composed it largely out of a sense of duty, for Grafton was responsible for obtaining for him the post of Regius Professor of History. Gray was uneasy both about the poem's merit and the flattery it contains."

The Complete English Poems of Thomas Gray. Edited with an Introduction and Notes by James Reeves. The Poetry Bookshelf series. London: Heinemann; New York: Barnes & Noble, 1973, 118.

Title/Paratext] "Written in 1769 for the [...]" J. Heath-Stubbs, 1981.

"Written in 1769 for the installation of the Duke of Grafton (the Prime Minister) as Chancellor of Cambridge University in July of that year. The Duke had been responsible for Gray's appointment as Regius Professor of History. The Ode was set to music by John Randall, Professor of Music in the University."

Thomas Gray: Selected Poems. Ed. by John Heath-Stubbs. Manchester: Carcanet New Press Ltd., 1981, 80.

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Air

1 'Hence, avaunt, ('tis holy ground) 2 Explanatory

1.1-5 'Hence, ... ground)] "It is obvious to compare, [...]" D.C. Tovey, 1922 [1st ed. 1898].

"It is obvious to compare, with Mitford, 'Procul, O procul este profani,' Virg. AEn. VI. 258, and a great many other classical instances in which the profane are warned off holy ground."

Gray's English Poems, Original and Translated from the Norse and Welsh. Edited by Duncan C. Tovey. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1922 [1st ed. 1898], 283.

1.1-5 'Hence, ... ground)] "Virgil, Aeneid vi 258: Procul [...]" R. Lonsdale, 1969.

"Virgil, Aeneid vi 258: Procul o, procul este, profani (Away! away! unhallowed ones!); Statius, Sylvae III iii 13: procul hinc, procul ite nocentes (Begone, begone, ye wicked). Shakespeare has 'hence, avaunt', II Henry IV I ii 103 and Othello IV i 271."

The Poems of Thomas Gray, William Collins, Oliver Goldsmith. Edited by Roger Lonsdale. Longman Annotated English Poets Series. London and Harlow: Longmans, 1969, 268.

Contribute a note or query

2 'Comus and his midnight-crew, 3 Explanatory

2.1-4 'Comus ... midnight-crew,] " ''Meanwhile, welcome joy and [...]" D.C. Tovey, 1922 [1st ed. 1898].

" ''Meanwhile, welcome joy and feast,
Midnight shout and revelry,
Tipsy dance and jollity.''
        Milton, Comus, 102. (Wakefield.)
Comus himself thus speaks in Milton. His name signifies 'Revel.' He was personified in later antiquity, but I think his parentage from Circe and Bacchus is the invention of Milton (Comus, 46-58).
When we remember Gray's description of the state of Cambridge in 1747 with 'the Fellow-commoners (the Bucks) run mad' etc. and the practical joke played upon the already famous author of the Elegy, by the young gentlemen of Peterhouse, which caused his migration to Pembroke College in 1756; his Hymn to Ignorance (q. v.) and his description of Cambridge in 1764 as 'a silly, dirty place,' we may picture the poet writing these opening lines with something like a grim smile."

Gray's English Poems, Original and Translated from the Norse and Welsh. Edited by Duncan C. Tovey. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1922 [1st ed. 1898], 283.

2.1-4 'Comus ... midnight-crew,] "'Midnight shout, and revelry' and [...]" R. Lonsdale, 1969.

"'Midnight shout, and revelry' and 'he and his curst crew', Milton, Comus 103, 653."

The Poems of Thomas Gray, William Collins, Oliver Goldsmith. Edited by Roger Lonsdale. Longman Annotated English Poets Series. London and Harlow: Longmans, 1969, 268.

2.1 'Comus] "spirit of wildness and laxity [...]" J. Reeves, 1973.

"spirit of wildness and laxity in Milton's poem."

The Complete English Poems of Thomas Gray. Edited with an Introduction and Notes by James Reeves. The Poetry Bookshelf series. London: Heinemann; New York: Barnes & Noble, 1973, 118.

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3 'And Ignorance with looks profound,
4 'And dreaming Sloth of pallid hue, 2 Explanatory

4.3-6 Sloth ... hue,] "Contrast this with the ''rosy [...]" J. Bradshaw, 1903 [1st ed. 1891].

"Contrast this with the ''rosy hue, and lively cheer of vigour born,'' ''Ode on Eton,'' 45, 47."

The Poetical Works of Thomas Gray: English and Latin. Edited with an introduction, life, notes and a bibliography by John Bradshaw. Reprinted edition. The Aldine edition of the British poets series. London: George Bell and sons, 1903 [1st edition 1891], 239.

4.5-6 pallid hue,] "Cp. 'pallid hew', Faerie Queene [...]" R. Lonsdale, 1969.

"Cp. 'pallid hew', Faerie Queene III ii 28, 1; VI viii 40, 6."

The Poems of Thomas Gray, William Collins, Oliver Goldsmith. Edited by Roger Lonsdale. Longman Annotated English Poets Series. London and Harlow: Longmans, 1969, 268.

Contribute a note or query

5 'Mad Sedition's cry profane,
6 'Servitude that hugs her chain, 1 Explanatory

6.1-5 'Servitude ... chain,] "Cp. Progress of Poesy 80 [...]" R. Lonsdale, 1969.

"Cp. Progress of Poesy 80 (p. 172); and 'If, like a fool, thou dost not hug thy chain', Dryden, Lucretius iv 135."

The Poems of Thomas Gray, William Collins, Oliver Goldsmith. Edited by Roger Lonsdale. Longman Annotated English Poets Series. London and Harlow: Longmans, 1969, 268.

Contribute a note or query

7 'Nor in these consecrated bowers 1 Explanatory

7.4-5 consecrated bowers] "'Near to her close and [...]" R. Lonsdale, 1969.

"'Near to her close and consecrated bower', Midsummer Night's Dream III ii 7."

The Poems of Thomas Gray, William Collins, Oliver Goldsmith. Edited by Roger Lonsdale. Longman Annotated English Poets Series. London and Harlow: Longmans, 1969, 268.

Contribute a note or query

8 'Let painted Flattery hide her serpent-train in flowers. 1 Explanatory

8.6-8 serpent-train ... flowers.] "'as the snake roll'd in [...]" R. Lonsdale, 1969.

"'as the snake roll'd in a flowering bank', II Henry VI III i 228; and 'Look like the innocent flower, / But be the serpent under't', Macbeth I v 66-7. The image may derive from Virgil, Eclogues iii 92-3."

The Poems of Thomas Gray, William Collins, Oliver Goldsmith. Edited by Roger Lonsdale. Longman Annotated English Poets Series. London and Harlow: Longmans, 1969, 268.

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Chorus

9 'Nor Envy base nor creeping Gain
10 'Dare the Muse's walk to stain,
11 'While bright-eyed Science watches round: 3 Explanatory

11.1-5 'While ... round:] "See Eton Ode, l. 3." D.C. Tovey, 1922 [1st ed. 1898].

"See Eton Ode, l. 3."

Gray's English Poems, Original and Translated from the Norse and Welsh. Edited by Duncan C. Tovey. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1922 [1st ed. 1898], 283.

11.1-5 'While ... round:] "See the Eton ode, l. [...]" H.W. Starr/J.R. Hendrickson, 1966.

"See the Eton ode, l. 3."

The Complete Poems of Thomas Gray: English, Latin and Greek. Edited by Herbert W. Starr and J. R. Hendrickson. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1966, 227.

11.1-5 'While ... round:] "'With Science bright-eyed as the [...]" R. Lonsdale, 1969.

"'With Science bright-eyed as the morn', Joseph Warton, Ode to Liberty 6, and 'bright-eyed fancy', Progress of Poesy 108."

The Poems of Thomas Gray, William Collins, Oliver Goldsmith. Edited by Roger Lonsdale. Longman Annotated English Poets Series. London and Harlow: Longmans, 1969, 268.

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12 'Hence, away, 'tis holy ground!'

Recitative

13 From yonder realms of empyrean day 2 Explanatory

13.5 empyrean] "''Empyrean,'' and ''empyreal'' are favorite [...]" W. Lyon Phelps, 1894.

"''Empyrean,'' and ''empyreal'' are favorite words with Milton. The word is from Gk. [word omitted] = fire; and means the highest heaven, where the ancients supposed the region of pure fire to be."

Selections from the Poetry and Prose of Thomas Gray. Ed. with an introduction and notes by William Lyon Phelps. The Athenaeum press series. Boston: Ginn & company, 1894, 175.

13.5-6 empyrean day] "'the vast ocean of unbounded [...]" R. Lonsdale, 1969.

"'the vast ocean of unbounded day / In th'empyrean heaven does stay', Cowley, Hymn to Light st. xxvi."

The Poems of Thomas Gray, William Collins, Oliver Goldsmith. Edited by Roger Lonsdale. Longman Annotated English Poets Series. London and Harlow: Longmans, 1969, 268.

Contribute a note or query

14 Bursts on my ear the indignant lay: 4 Explanatory

14.5-7 the ... lay:] "the previous verses which the [...]" J. Bradshaw, 1903 [1st ed. 1891].

"the previous verses which the poet feigns to have heard said by sages and bards as they look down on their old University, ''indignant'' lest Comus, Ignorance, etc., should profane the ''holy ground.''"

The Poetical Works of Thomas Gray: English and Latin. Edited with an introduction, life, notes and a bibliography by John Bradshaw. Reprinted edition. The Aldine edition of the British poets series. London: George Bell and sons, 1903 [1st edition 1891], 239.

14.5-7 the ... lay:] "'the previous verses which the [...]" D.C. Tovey, 1922 [1st ed. 1898].

"'the previous verses which the poet feigns to have heard said by sages and bards as they look down on their old University, ''indignant'' lest Comus, Ignorance &c., should profane the ''holy ground''.' Bradshaw."

Gray's English Poems, Original and Translated from the Norse and Welsh. Edited by Duncan C. Tovey. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1922 [1st ed. 1898], 283.

14.5-7 the ... lay:] "The previous verses which the [...]" H.W. Starr/J.R. Hendrickson, 1966.

"The previous verses which the poet feigns to have heard said by sages and bards as they look down on their old University, 'indignant' lest Comus, Ignorance, etc., should profane the 'holy ground'. Br[adshaw]."

The Complete Poems of Thomas Gray: English, Latin and Greek. Edited by Herbert W. Starr and J. R. Hendrickson. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1966, 227.

14.5-7 the ... lay:] "The preceding verses." R. Lonsdale, 1969.

"The preceding verses."

The Poems of Thomas Gray, William Collins, Oliver Goldsmith. Edited by Roger Lonsdale. Longman Annotated English Poets Series. London and Harlow: Longmans, 1969, 268.

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15 There sit the sainted sage, the bard divine, 1 Explanatory

15.1 - 17.7 There ... clime.] "Pope, Essay on Criticism 189, [...]" R. Lonsdale, 1969.

"Pope, Essay on Criticism 189, 193-4: 'Hail Bards Triumphant! born in happier Days / ... / Nations unborn your mighty Names shall sound, / And Worlds applaud that must not yet be found!' Cp. also 'Like them to shine thro' long succeeding age', Pope, Epistle to Jervas 11; 'In awful sages and in noble bards', Thomson, Summer 1532."

The Poems of Thomas Gray, William Collins, Oliver Goldsmith. Edited by Roger Lonsdale. Longman Annotated English Poets Series. London and Harlow: Longmans, 1969, 268.

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16 The few whom genius gave to shine 1 Explanatory

15.1 - 17.7 There ... clime.] "Pope, Essay on Criticism 189, [...]" R. Lonsdale, 1969.

"Pope, Essay on Criticism 189, 193-4: 'Hail Bards Triumphant! born in happier Days / ... / Nations unborn your mighty Names shall sound, / And Worlds applaud that must not yet be found!' Cp. also 'Like them to shine thro' long succeeding age', Pope, Epistle to Jervas 11; 'In awful sages and in noble bards', Thomson, Summer 1532."

The Poems of Thomas Gray, William Collins, Oliver Goldsmith. Edited by Roger Lonsdale. Longman Annotated English Poets Series. London and Harlow: Longmans, 1969, 268.

Contribute a note or query

17 Through every unborn age and undiscovered clime. 2 Explanatory

15.1 - 17.7 There ... clime.] "Pope, Essay on Criticism 189, [...]" R. Lonsdale, 1969.

"Pope, Essay on Criticism 189, 193-4: 'Hail Bards Triumphant! born in happier Days / ... / Nations unborn your mighty Names shall sound, / And Worlds applaud that must not yet be found!' Cp. also 'Like them to shine thro' long succeeding age', Pope, Epistle to Jervas 11; 'In awful sages and in noble bards', Thomson, Summer 1532."

The Poems of Thomas Gray, William Collins, Oliver Goldsmith. Edited by Roger Lonsdale. Longman Annotated English Poets Series. London and Harlow: Longmans, 1969, 268.

17.1-7 Through ... clime.] "''Hail, bards triumphant! born in [...]" D.C. Tovey, 1922 [1st ed. 1898].

"''Hail, bards triumphant! born in happier days
Immortal heirs of universal praise,
Nations unborn your mighty name shall sound
And worlds applaud that must not yet be found.''
    Pope, Essay on Criticism, l. 193.   (Wakefield.)"

Gray's English Poems, Original and Translated from the Norse and Welsh. Edited by Duncan C. Tovey. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1922 [1st ed. 1898], 283.

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18 Rapt in celestial transport they, (accomp.) 3 Explanatory

18.6 (accomp.)] "This meant that, though the [...]" W. Lyon Phelps, 1894.

"This meant that, though the recitative was held, the next nine lines were also accompanied."

Selections from the Poetry and Prose of Thomas Gray. Ed. with an introduction and notes by William Lyon Phelps. The Athenaeum press series. Boston: Ginn & company, 1894, 175.

18.6 (accomp.)] "'This means that though the [...]" D.C. Tovey, 1922 [1st ed. 1898].

"'This means that though the recitative was held the next nine lines were also accompanied.'   Phelps."

Gray's English Poems, Original and Translated from the Norse and Welsh. Edited by Duncan C. Tovey. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1922 [1st ed. 1898], 284.

18.6 (accomp.)] "Stanza 2 [is] 'Recitative' throughout, [...]" H.W. Starr/J.R. Hendrickson, 1966.

"Stanza 2 [is] 'Recitative' throughout, but accompanied at the sixth line. M[ason]. This means that though the recitative was held the next nine lines were also accompanied. Phelps and T[o]v[ey]."

The Complete Poems of Thomas Gray: English, Latin and Greek. Edited by Herbert W. Starr and J. R. Hendrickson. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1966, 227.

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19 Yet hither oft a glance from high
20 They send of tender sympathy
21 To bless the place, where on their opening soul 5 Explanatory

21.1-9 To ... soul] "their minds when, as students [...]" J. Bradshaw, 1903 [1st ed. 1891].

"their minds when, as students there, they were expanding. Cf. in Gray's ''Education and Government'': - ''Spread the young thought, and warm the opening heart.'' - 12."

The Poetical Works of Thomas Gray: English and Latin. Edited with an introduction, life, notes and a bibliography by John Bradshaw. Reprinted edition. The Aldine edition of the British poets series. London: George Bell and sons, 1903 [1st edition 1891], 239.

21.1-9 To ... soul] "''Spread the young thought and [...]" D.C. Tovey, 1922 [1st ed. 1898].

"''Spread the young thought and warm the opening heart.'' Education and Government, l. 12.   Bradshaw."

Gray's English Poems, Original and Translated from the Norse and Welsh. Edited by Duncan C. Tovey. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1922 [1st ed. 1898], 284.

21.1-9 To ... soul] "See Alliance of Education and [...]" H.W. Starr/J.R. Hendrickson, 1966.

"See Alliance of Education and Government, l. 12."

The Complete Poems of Thomas Gray: English, Latin and Greek. Edited by Herbert W. Starr and J. R. Hendrickson. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1966, 227.

21.4 place,] "Cambridge." R. Lonsdale, 1969.

"Cambridge."

The Poems of Thomas Gray, William Collins, Oliver Goldsmith. Edited by Roger Lonsdale. Longman Annotated English Poets Series. London and Harlow: Longmans, 1969, 269.

21.8-9 opening soul] "Cp. Education and Government 12 [...]" R. Lonsdale, 1969.

"Cp. Education and Government 12 and n (p. 93)."

The Poems of Thomas Gray, William Collins, Oliver Goldsmith. Edited by Roger Lonsdale. Longman Annotated English Poets Series. London and Harlow: Longmans, 1969, 269.

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22 First the genuine ardour stole. 1 Explanatory

22.3-4 genuine ardour] "'the genuine ardour' is an [...]" D.C. Tovey, 1922 [1st ed. 1898].

"'the genuine ardour' is an instance of relapse into the conventional diction of Gray's century."

Gray's English Poems, Original and Translated from the Norse and Welsh. Edited by Duncan C. Tovey. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1922 [1st ed. 1898], 284.

Contribute a note or query

23 'Twas Milton struck the deep-toned shell, 3 Explanatory

23.2 Milton] "An undergraduate at Christ's College." R. Lonsdale, 1969.

"An undergraduate at Christ's College."

The Poems of Thomas Gray, William Collins, Oliver Goldsmith. Edited by Roger Lonsdale. Longman Annotated English Poets Series. London and Harlow: Longmans, 1969, 269.

23.6 shell,] "See on Progress of Poesy, [...]" D.C. Tovey, 1922 [1st ed. 1898].

"See on Progress of Poesy, l. 15."

Gray's English Poems, Original and Translated from the Norse and Welsh. Edited by Duncan C. Tovey. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1922 [1st ed. 1898], 284.

23.6 shell,] "Lyre. See Progress of Poesy [...]" R. Lonsdale, 1969.

"Lyre. See Progress of Poesy 15 and n. (p. 164). Cp. 'When Jubal struck the chorded shell', Dryden, Song for St Cecilia's Day 17."

The Poems of Thomas Gray, William Collins, Oliver Goldsmith. Edited by Roger Lonsdale. Longman Annotated English Poets Series. London and Harlow: Longmans, 1969, 269.

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24 And, as the choral warblings round him swell,
25 Meek Newton's self bends from his state sublime, 7 Explanatory

25.1-3 Meek ... self] "Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727). He [...]" W. Lyon Phelps, 1894.

"Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727). He is said to have resided at Trinity College, Cambridge, for thirty-five years, without a month's interruption."

Selections from the Poetry and Prose of Thomas Gray. Ed. with an introduction and notes by William Lyon Phelps. The Athenaeum press series. Boston: Ginn & company, 1894, 175.

25.1-2 Meek Newton's] "Sir Isaac Newton, though one [...]" J. Bradshaw, 1903 [1st ed. 1891].

"Sir Isaac Newton, though one of the greatest philosophers that ever lived, had an humble opinion of his knowledge. He was born in 1642 and died in 1727, aged 85, hence here spoken of as ''hoary.'' He was twenty-five years old when ''Paradise Lost'' was published in 1667. According to Dr. Whewell he resided at Trinity College for thirty-five years without the interruption of a single month."

The Poetical Works of Thomas Gray: English and Latin. Edited with an introduction, life, notes and a bibliography by John Bradshaw. Reprinted edition. The Aldine edition of the British poets series. London: George Bell and sons, 1903 [1st edition 1891], 239/240.

25.1-2 Meek Newton's] "The humility of Newton was [...]" D.C. Tovey, 1922 [1st ed. 1898].

"The humility of Newton was exhibited not only in his famous comparison of himself to a child picking up shells beside the ocean of Truth, but in his habitual demeanour; it was an essential part of his character. Gray wisely forgets that he had no appreciation of poetry, which he described as 'ingenious nonsense.'"

Gray's English Poems, Original and Translated from the Norse and Welsh. Edited by Duncan C. Tovey. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1922 [1st ed. 1898], 284.

25.1-2 Meek Newton's] "Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727), Scholar [...]" R. Lonsdale, 1969.

"Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727), Scholar and later Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge."

The Poems of Thomas Gray, William Collins, Oliver Goldsmith. Edited by Roger Lonsdale. Longman Annotated English Poets Series. London and Harlow: Longmans, 1969, 269.

25.6-8 his ... sublime,] "His chair of state, as [...]" W. Lyon Phelps, 1894.

"His chair of state, as often in Shakspere."

Selections from the Poetry and Prose of Thomas Gray. Ed. with an introduction and notes by William Lyon Phelps. The Athenaeum press series. Boston: Ginn & company, 1894, 175.

25.6-8 his ... sublime,] "his chair of state, as [...]" D.C. Tovey, 1922 [1st ed. 1898].

"his chair of state, as often in Shakespeare. Phelps. This is possibly correct, cf. l. 15, and Macbeth, III. 4. 5, 'Our hostess keeps her state;' Twelfth Night, II. 5. 5, 'sitting in my state.' But one cannot be sure. The expression has certainly passed into our poetic diction in a less particular sense, e.g.

''If in thy second state sublime
    Thy ransom'd reason change replies
    With all the circle of the wise,
The perfect flower of human time.''
        Tennyson, In Memoriam, LXI. 1."

Gray's English Poems, Original and Translated from the Norse and Welsh. Edited by Duncan C. Tovey. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1922 [1st ed. 1898], 284.

25.7 state] "Perhaps intended to convey only [...]" R. Lonsdale, 1969.

"Perhaps intended to convey only a general idea of lofty dignity; or a throne (cp. 'sit', l. 15), or more particularly, the canopy over a throne, as in Par. Lost x 445-6: 'his high Throne, which under state / Of richest texture spred'."

The Poems of Thomas Gray, William Collins, Oliver Goldsmith. Edited by Roger Lonsdale. Longman Annotated English Poets Series. London and Harlow: Longmans, 1969, 269.

Contribute a note or query

26 And nods his hoary head and listens to the rhyme. 1 Explanatory

26.1-10 And ... rhyme.] "''E'en mitred Rochester would nod [...]" D.C. Tovey, 1922 [1st ed. 1898].

"''E'en mitred Rochester would nod the head.'' Pope, Prologue to the Satires, l. 140.   Wakefield.
''See Rochester approving nods the head, / And ranks one modern with the mighty dead.'' Gay, Mr Pope's Welcome from Greece (1720), ll. 111, 112.   Pattison."

Gray's English Poems, Original and Translated from the Norse and Welsh. Edited by Duncan C. Tovey. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1922 [1st ed. 1898], 284.

Contribute a note or query


Air

27 'Ye brown o'er-arching groves, 9 Explanatory

27.1 - 34.8 'Ye ... Melancholy.'] "This stanza, supposed to be [...]" E. Gosse, 1884.

"This stanza, supposed to be sung by Milton, is very judiciously written in the metre which he fixed upon for the stanza of his Christmas Hymn: '' 'Twas in the winter wild,'' etc. - [Mason.]"

The Works of Thomas Gray: In Prose and Verse. Ed. by Edmund Gosse, in four vols. London: MacMillan and Co., 1912 [1st edition 1884], vol. i, 94.

27.1 - 34.8 'Ye ... Melancholy.'] "Mason remarks that ''this stanza, [...]" W. Lyon Phelps, 1894.

"Mason remarks that ''this stanza, being supposed to be sung by Milton, is very judiciously written in the metre'' of the great Christmas hymn. The stanza is also full of Miltonic expressions."

Selections from the Poetry and Prose of Thomas Gray. Ed. with an introduction and notes by William Lyon Phelps. The Athenaeum press series. Boston: Ginn & company, 1894, 175.

27.1 - 34.8 'Ye ... Melancholy.'] "''This stanza, being supposed to [...]" J. Bradshaw, 1903 [1st ed. 1891].

"''This stanza, being supposed to be sung by Milton, is very judiciously written in the metre which he fixed upon for the stanza of his Christmas Hymn; 'Twas in the winter wild,'' etc. - Mason. It is also written in the language of Milton, his very words as well as thoughts and manner being adopted: -

''when the sun begins to fling
His flaring beams, me, Goddess, bring
To arched walks of twilight groves,
And shadows brown.'' - Il Penseroso, 131-134.

''By the rushy-fringed bank,
Where grows the willow and the osier dank.'' - Comus, 890.

''Next Camus, reverend sire, went footing slow.'' - Lycidas, 103.

''Together both, ere the high lawns appeared
Under the opening eyelids of the morn
We drove afield.'' - Ib. 25, 26.
    [In the above lines Milton refers to his life at Cambridge.]

''After short blush of morn.'' - Par. Lost, xi. 185.

''The shepherds on the lawn,
Or ere the point of dawn.'' - Christmas Hymn, 85.

''I did not err; there does a sable cloud
Turn forth her silver lining on the night,
And casts a gleam over this tufted grove.'' - Comus, 223.

''The Cherub Contemplation,
And the mute Silence hist along, ...
While Cynthia checks her dragon yoke
Gently o'er the accustomed oak.
Sweet bird, that shunnest the noise of folly,
Most musical, most melancholy.'' - Il Penseroso, 54-62.

''But let my due feet never fail
To walk the studious cloister's pale'' - Ib. 155-156."

The Poetical Works of Thomas Gray: English and Latin. Edited with an introduction, life, notes and a bibliography by John Bradshaw. Reprinted edition. The Aldine edition of the British poets series. London: George Bell and sons, 1903 [1st edition 1891], 240/241.

27.1 - 34.8 'Ye ... Melancholy.'] "This stanza being supposed to [...]" D.C. Tovey, 1922 [1st ed. 1898].

"This stanza being supposed to be sung by Milton is very judiciously written in the metre which he fixed upon for the stanza of his Christmas-hymn '''Twas in the winter wild,'' &c.   Mason."

Gray's English Poems, Original and Translated from the Norse and Welsh. Edited by Duncan C. Tovey. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1922 [1st ed. 1898], 284.

27.1 - 34.8 'Ye ... Melancholy.'] "This stanza, being supposed to [...]" H.W. Starr/J.R. Hendrickson, 1966.

"This stanza, being supposed to be sung by Milton, is very judiciously written in the metre which he fixed upon for the stanza of his Christmas-hymn.
'Twas in [It was] the winter wild, &c. [On the Morning of Christ's Nativity: The Hymn, l. 29] M[ason]."

The Complete Poems of Thomas Gray: English, Latin and Greek. Edited by Herbert W. Starr and J. R. Hendrickson. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1966, 227.

27.1 - 34.8 'Ye ... Melancholy.'] "'This stanza spoken by Milton [...]" R. Lonsdale, 1969.

"'This stanza spoken by Milton is judiciously distributed into the same measure, as that in which the great poet composed his sublime Hymn on the Nativity; except that the last verse but one in Mr. Gray's sonnet is longer by two syllables than the corresponding verse in his original' (Wakefield, 1786, pp. 149-50, expanding an observation of Mason, Poems p. 98)."

The Poems of Thomas Gray, William Collins, Oliver Goldsmith. Edited by Roger Lonsdale. Longman Annotated English Poets Series. London and Harlow: Longmans, 1969, 269.

27.1-4 'Ye ... groves,] "'To arched walks of twilight [...]" R. Lonsdale, 1969.

"'To arched walks of twilight groves, / And shadows brown that Sylvan loves', Milton, Il Penseroso 133-4; 'Where th'Etrurian shades / High overarch't imbowr' and 'A Pillard shade / High overarch't', Par. Lost i 304, ix 1106-7; and 'Brown with o'erarching shades', Pope, Odyssey iii 97."

The Poems of Thomas Gray, William Collins, Oliver Goldsmith. Edited by Roger Lonsdale. Longman Annotated English Poets Series. London and Harlow: Longmans, 1969, 269.

27.2 brown] "'brown' with shadows, as Milton [...]" D.C. Tovey, 1922 [1st ed. 1898].

"'brown' with shadows, as Milton teaches, whose diction, as Bradshaw points out, Gray tries to repeat:

''... when the sun begins to fling
His flaming beams, me, Goddess, bring
To arched walks of twilight groves,
And shadows brown.'' Il Penseroso, ll. 131-134."

Gray's English Poems, Original and Translated from the Norse and Welsh. Edited by Duncan C. Tovey. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1922 [1st ed. 1898], 284.

27.2 brown] "Shadowy." H.W. Starr/J.R. Hendrickson, 1966.

"Shadowy."

The Complete Poems of Thomas Gray: English, Latin and Greek. Edited by Herbert W. Starr and J. R. Hendrickson. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1966, 227.

Contribute a note or query

28 'That Contemplation loves, 7 Explanatory

27.1 - 34.8 'Ye ... Melancholy.'] "This stanza, supposed to be [...]" E. Gosse, 1884.

"This stanza, supposed to be sung by Milton, is very judiciously written in the metre which he fixed upon for the stanza of his Christmas Hymn: '' 'Twas in the winter wild,'' etc. - [Mason.]"

The Works of Thomas Gray: In Prose and Verse. Ed. by Edmund Gosse, in four vols. London: MacMillan and Co., 1912 [1st edition 1884], vol. i, 94.

27.1 - 34.8 'Ye ... Melancholy.'] "Mason remarks that ''this stanza, [...]" W. Lyon Phelps, 1894.

"Mason remarks that ''this stanza, being supposed to be sung by Milton, is very judiciously written in the metre'' of the great Christmas hymn. The stanza is also full of Miltonic expressions."

Selections from the Poetry and Prose of Thomas Gray. Ed. with an introduction and notes by William Lyon Phelps. The Athenaeum press series. Boston: Ginn & company, 1894, 175.

27.1 - 34.8 'Ye ... Melancholy.'] "''This stanza, being supposed to [...]" J. Bradshaw, 1903 [1st ed. 1891].

"''This stanza, being supposed to be sung by Milton, is very judiciously written in the metre which he fixed upon for the stanza of his Christmas Hymn; 'Twas in the winter wild,'' etc. - Mason. It is also written in the language of Milton, his very words as well as thoughts and manner being adopted: -

''when the sun begins to fling
His flaring beams, me, Goddess, bring
To arched walks of twilight groves,
And shadows brown.'' - Il Penseroso, 131-134.

''By the rushy-fringed bank,
Where grows the willow and the osier dank.'' - Comus, 890.

''Next Camus, reverend sire, went footing slow.'' - Lycidas, 103.

''Together both, ere the high lawns appeared
Under the opening eyelids of the morn
We drove afield.'' - Ib. 25, 26.
    [In the above lines Milton refers to his life at Cambridge.]

''After short blush of morn.'' - Par. Lost, xi. 185.

''The shepherds on the lawn,
Or ere the point of dawn.'' - Christmas Hymn, 85.

''I did not err; there does a sable cloud
Turn forth her silver lining on the night,
And casts a gleam over this tufted grove.'' - Comus, 223.

''The Cherub Contemplation,
And the mute Silence hist along, ...
While Cynthia checks her dragon yoke
Gently o'er the accustomed oak.
Sweet bird, that shunnest the noise of folly,
Most musical, most melancholy.'' - Il Penseroso, 54-62.

''But let my due feet never fail
To walk the studious cloister's pale'' - Ib. 155-156."

The Poetical Works of Thomas Gray: English and Latin. Edited with an introduction, life, notes and a bibliography by John Bradshaw. Reprinted edition. The Aldine edition of the British poets series. London: George Bell and sons, 1903 [1st edition 1891], 240/241.

27.1 - 34.8 'Ye ... Melancholy.'] "This stanza being supposed to [...]" D.C. Tovey, 1922 [1st ed. 1898].

"This stanza being supposed to be sung by Milton is very judiciously written in the metre which he fixed upon for the stanza of his Christmas-hymn '''Twas in the winter wild,'' &c.   Mason."

Gray's English Poems, Original and Translated from the Norse and Welsh. Edited by Duncan C. Tovey. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1922 [1st ed. 1898], 284.

27.1 - 34.8 'Ye ... Melancholy.'] "This stanza, being supposed to [...]" H.W. Starr/J.R. Hendrickson, 1966.

"This stanza, being supposed to be sung by Milton, is very judiciously written in the metre which he fixed upon for the stanza of his Christmas-hymn.
'Twas in [It was] the winter wild, &c. [On the Morning of Christ's Nativity: The Hymn, l. 29] M[ason]."

The Complete Poems of Thomas Gray: English, Latin and Greek. Edited by Herbert W. Starr and J. R. Hendrickson. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1966, 227.

27.1 - 34.8 'Ye ... Melancholy.'] "'This stanza spoken by Milton [...]" R. Lonsdale, 1969.

"'This stanza spoken by Milton is judiciously distributed into the same measure, as that in which the great poet composed his sublime Hymn on the Nativity; except that the last verse but one in Mr. Gray's sonnet is longer by two syllables than the corresponding verse in his original' (Wakefield, 1786, pp. 149-50, expanding an observation of Mason, Poems p. 98)."

The Poems of Thomas Gray, William Collins, Oliver Goldsmith. Edited by Roger Lonsdale. Longman Annotated English Poets Series. London and Harlow: Longmans, 1969, 269.

28.2 Contemplation] "'The Cherub Contemplation', Milton, Il [...]" R. Lonsdale, 1969.

"'The Cherub Contemplation', Milton, Il Penseroso 54."

The Poems of Thomas Gray, William Collins, Oliver Goldsmith. Edited by Roger Lonsdale. Longman Annotated English Poets Series. London and Harlow: Longmans, 1969, 269.

Contribute a note or query

29 'Where willowy Camus lingers with delight! 10 Explanatory

27.1 - 34.8 'Ye ... Melancholy.'] "This stanza, supposed to be [...]" E. Gosse, 1884.

"This stanza, supposed to be sung by Milton, is very judiciously written in the metre which he fixed upon for the stanza of his Christmas Hymn: '' 'Twas in the winter wild,'' etc. - [Mason.]"

The Works of Thomas Gray: In Prose and Verse. Ed. by Edmund Gosse, in four vols. London: MacMillan and Co., 1912 [1st edition 1884], vol. i, 94.

27.1 - 34.8 'Ye ... Melancholy.'] "Mason remarks that ''this stanza, [...]" W. Lyon Phelps, 1894.

"Mason remarks that ''this stanza, being supposed to be sung by Milton, is very judiciously written in the metre'' of the great Christmas hymn. The stanza is also full of Miltonic expressions."

Selections from the Poetry and Prose of Thomas Gray. Ed. with an introduction and notes by William Lyon Phelps. The Athenaeum press series. Boston: Ginn & company, 1894, 175.

27.1 - 34.8 'Ye ... Melancholy.'] "''This stanza, being supposed to [...]" J. Bradshaw, 1903 [1st ed. 1891].

"''This stanza, being supposed to be sung by Milton, is very judiciously written in the metre which he fixed upon for the stanza of his Christmas Hymn; 'Twas in the winter wild,'' etc. - Mason. It is also written in the language of Milton, his very words as well as thoughts and manner being adopted: -

''when the sun begins to fling
His flaring beams, me, Goddess, bring
To arched walks of twilight groves,
And shadows brown.'' - Il Penseroso, 131-134.

''By the rushy-fringed bank,
Where grows the willow and the osier dank.'' - Comus, 890.

''Next Camus, reverend sire, went footing slow.'' - Lycidas, 103.

''Together both, ere the high lawns appeared
Under the opening eyelids of the morn
We drove afield.'' - Ib. 25, 26.
    [In the above lines Milton refers to his life at Cambridge.]

''After short blush of morn.'' - Par. Lost, xi. 185.

''The shepherds on the lawn,
Or ere the point of dawn.'' - Christmas Hymn, 85.

''I did not err; there does a sable cloud
Turn forth her silver lining on the night,
And casts a gleam over this tufted grove.'' - Comus, 223.

''The Cherub Contemplation,
And the mute Silence hist along, ...
While Cynthia checks her dragon yoke
Gently o'er the accustomed oak.
Sweet bird, that shunnest the noise of folly,
Most musical, most melancholy.'' - Il Penseroso, 54-62.

''But let my due feet never fail
To walk the studious cloister's pale'' - Ib. 155-156."

The Poetical Works of Thomas Gray: English and Latin. Edited with an introduction, life, notes and a bibliography by John Bradshaw. Reprinted edition. The Aldine edition of the British poets series. London: George Bell and sons, 1903 [1st edition 1891], 240/241.

27.1 - 34.8 'Ye ... Melancholy.'] "This stanza being supposed to [...]" D.C. Tovey, 1922 [1st ed. 1898].

"This stanza being supposed to be sung by Milton is very judiciously written in the metre which he fixed upon for the stanza of his Christmas-hymn '''Twas in the winter wild,'' &c.   Mason."

Gray's English Poems, Original and Translated from the Norse and Welsh. Edited by Duncan C. Tovey. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1922 [1st ed. 1898], 284.

27.1 - 34.8 'Ye ... Melancholy.'] "This stanza, being supposed to [...]" H.W. Starr/J.R. Hendrickson, 1966.

"This stanza, being supposed to be sung by Milton, is very judiciously written in the metre which he fixed upon for the stanza of his Christmas-hymn.
'Twas in [It was] the winter wild, &c. [On the Morning of Christ's Nativity: The Hymn, l. 29] M[ason]."

The Complete Poems of Thomas Gray: English, Latin and Greek. Edited by Herbert W. Starr and J. R. Hendrickson. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1966, 227.

27.1 - 34.8 'Ye ... Melancholy.'] "'This stanza spoken by Milton [...]" R. Lonsdale, 1969.

"'This stanza spoken by Milton is judiciously distributed into the same measure, as that in which the great poet composed his sublime Hymn on the Nativity; except that the last verse but one in Mr. Gray's sonnet is longer by two syllables than the corresponding verse in his original' (Wakefield, 1786, pp. 149-50, expanding an observation of Mason, Poems p. 98)."

The Poems of Thomas Gray, William Collins, Oliver Goldsmith. Edited by Roger Lonsdale. Longman Annotated English Poets Series. London and Harlow: Longmans, 1969, 269.

29.2 willowy] "With willows growing on the [...]" J. Bradshaw, 1903 [1st ed. 1891].

"With willows growing on the banks; cf. ''rushy brink,'' ''Ode on Spring,'' 15; and his ''Hymn to Ignorance'': - ''Where rushy Camus' slowly-winding flood.''"

The Poetical Works of Thomas Gray: English and Latin. Edited with an introduction, life, notes and a bibliography by John Bradshaw. Reprinted edition. The Aldine edition of the British poets series. London: George Bell and sons, 1903 [1st edition 1891], 241.

29.2 willowy] "'rushy' is Gray's epithet in [...]" D.C. Tovey, 1922 [1st ed. 1898].

"'rushy' is Gray's epithet in Hymn to Ignorance, l. 3[], q. v. corresponding to Milton's 'arundifer' and 'juncosus'; but these epithets were not meant to be complimentary. Hall, Milton's contemporary, quoted by Mitford, writes ''Nought have we here but willow-shaded shore / To tell our Grant his banks are left forlore.'' Sat. B. I. i. (Grant is the Cam.)"

Gray's English Poems, Original and Translated from the Norse and Welsh. Edited by Duncan C. Tovey. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1922 [1st ed. 1898], 285.

29.2-3 willowy Camus] "Joseph Hall, Satires I i [...]" R. Lonsdale, 1969.

"Joseph Hall, Satires I i 31, refers to the Cam's 'willow-shaded shore'; and cp. 'Or where the Cam thro' Willows winds its way', John Dart, Westminster Abbey (1723) I xl."

The Poems of Thomas Gray, William Collins, Oliver Goldsmith. Edited by Roger Lonsdale. Longman Annotated English Poets Series. London and Harlow: Longmans, 1969, 269.

29.3 Camus] "the river Cam, cf. l. [...]" Alexander Huber, 2000.

"the river Cam, cf. l. 51."

Alexander Huber <huber@thomasgray.org> (SUB Göttingen), URL: http://www.thomasgray.org/. Contributed on Sat Oct 28 14:23:12 2000 GMT.

Contribute a note or query

30 'Oft at the blush of dawn 9 Explanatory

27.1 - 34.8 'Ye ... Melancholy.'] "This stanza, supposed to be [...]" E. Gosse, 1884.

"This stanza, supposed to be sung by Milton, is very judiciously written in the metre which he fixed upon for the stanza of his Christmas Hymn: '' 'Twas in the winter wild,'' etc. - [Mason.]"

The Works of Thomas Gray: In Prose and Verse. Ed. by Edmund Gosse, in four vols. London: MacMillan and Co., 1912 [1st edition 1884], vol. i, 94.

27.1 - 34.8 'Ye ... Melancholy.'] "Mason remarks that ''this stanza, [...]" W. Lyon Phelps, 1894.

"Mason remarks that ''this stanza, being supposed to be sung by Milton, is very judiciously written in the metre'' of the great Christmas hymn. The stanza is also full of Miltonic expressions."

Selections from the Poetry and Prose of Thomas Gray. Ed. with an introduction and notes by William Lyon Phelps. The Athenaeum press series. Boston: Ginn & company, 1894, 175.

27.1 - 34.8 'Ye ... Melancholy.'] "''This stanza, being supposed to [...]" J. Bradshaw, 1903 [1st ed. 1891].

"''This stanza, being supposed to be sung by Milton, is very judiciously written in the metre which he fixed upon for the stanza of his Christmas Hymn; 'Twas in the winter wild,'' etc. - Mason. It is also written in the language of Milton, his very words as well as thoughts and manner being adopted: -

''when the sun begins to fling
His flaring beams, me, Goddess, bring
To arched walks of twilight groves,
And shadows brown.'' - Il Penseroso, 131-134.

''By the rushy-fringed bank,
Where grows the willow and the osier dank.'' - Comus, 890.

''Next Camus, reverend sire, went footing slow.'' - Lycidas, 103.

''Together both, ere the high lawns appeared
Under the opening eyelids of the morn
We drove afield.'' - Ib. 25, 26.
    [In the above lines Milton refers to his life at Cambridge.]

''After short blush of morn.'' - Par. Lost, xi. 185.

''The shepherds on the lawn,
Or ere the point of dawn.'' - Christmas Hymn, 85.

''I did not err; there does a sable cloud
Turn forth her silver lining on the night,
And casts a gleam over this tufted grove.'' - Comus, 223.

''The Cherub Contemplation,
And the mute Silence hist along, ...
While Cynthia checks her dragon yoke
Gently o'er the accustomed oak.
Sweet bird, that shunnest the noise of folly,
Most musical, most melancholy.'' - Il Penseroso, 54-62.

''But let my due feet never fail
To walk the studious cloister's pale'' - Ib. 155-156."

The Poetical Works of Thomas Gray: English and Latin. Edited with an introduction, life, notes and a bibliography by John Bradshaw. Reprinted edition. The Aldine edition of the British poets series. London: George Bell and sons, 1903 [1st edition 1891], 240/241.

27.1 - 34.8 'Ye ... Melancholy.'] "This stanza being supposed to [...]" D.C. Tovey, 1922 [1st ed. 1898].

"This stanza being supposed to be sung by Milton is very judiciously written in the metre which he fixed upon for the stanza of his Christmas-hymn '''Twas in the winter wild,'' &c.   Mason."

Gray's English Poems, Original and Translated from the Norse and Welsh. Edited by Duncan C. Tovey. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1922 [1st ed. 1898], 284.

27.1 - 34.8 'Ye ... Melancholy.'] "This stanza, being supposed to [...]" H.W. Starr/J.R. Hendrickson, 1966.

"This stanza, being supposed to be sung by Milton, is very judiciously written in the metre which he fixed upon for the stanza of his Christmas-hymn.
'Twas in [It was] the winter wild, &c. [On the Morning of Christ's Nativity: The Hymn, l. 29] M[ason]."

The Complete Poems of Thomas Gray: English, Latin and Greek. Edited by Herbert W. Starr and J. R. Hendrickson. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1966, 227.

27.1 - 34.8 'Ye ... Melancholy.'] "'This stanza spoken by Milton [...]" R. Lonsdale, 1969.

"'This stanza spoken by Milton is judiciously distributed into the same measure, as that in which the great poet composed his sublime Hymn on the Nativity; except that the last verse but one in Mr. Gray's sonnet is longer by two syllables than the corresponding verse in his original' (Wakefield, 1786, pp. 149-50, expanding an observation of Mason, Poems p. 98)."

The Poems of Thomas Gray, William Collins, Oliver Goldsmith. Edited by Roger Lonsdale. Longman Annotated English Poets Series. London and Harlow: Longmans, 1969, 269.

30.1 - 34.8 'Oft ... Melancholy.'] "Bradshaw collects the Miltonic passages [...]" D.C. Tovey, 1922 [1st ed. 1898].

"Bradshaw collects the Miltonic passages which Gray had in mind in this imitation, ll. 27-34:

''Together both, ere the high lawns appeared
Under the opening eyelids of the morn,
We drove afield.''         Lycidas, 25, 26.
(Milton, as Bradshaw remarks, is here speaking of his life at Cambridge.)
''After short blush of morn.'' Par. Lost, XI. 184.
''The shepherds on the lawn
Or ere the point of dawn'' Christmas Hymn, 85.
''I did not err: there does a sable cloud
Turn forth her silver lining on the night,
And casts a gleam over this tufted grove.''
        Comus, ll. 223-225.
And Il Penseroso (l. 54), the Cherub Contemplation (cf. l. 28 here); and the rhyme, Ib. 61, 62,
''Sweet bird, that shunn'st the noise of folly,
Most musical, most melancholy''
(cf. ll. 33, 34); also 'the studious cloister's pale.' Ib. l. 155."

Gray's English Poems, Original and Translated from the Norse and Welsh. Edited by Duncan C. Tovey. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1922 [1st ed. 1898], 285.

30.1 - 34.8 'Oft ... Melancholy.'] "These lines are a deliberate [...]" R. Lonsdale, 1969.

"These lines are a deliberate pastiche of Milton, Il Penseroso 61-7: 'Sweet Bird that shunn'st the noise of folly, / Most musicall, most melancholy! / Thee Chauntress oft the Woods among, / I woo to hear thy eeven-Song; / And missing thee, I walk unseen / On the dry smooth-shaven Green, / To behold the wandring Moon.' But there are other Miltonic echoes: e.g. 'After short blush of Morn', Par. Lost xi 184; 'The Shepherds on the Lawn, / Or ere the point of dawn', Nativity Ode 85-6; 'there does a sable cloud / Turn forth her silver lining on the night, / And casts a gleam over this tufted Grove', Comus 223-5; 'ere the high Lawns appear'd / Under the opening eye-lids of the morn', Lycidas 25-6."

The Poems of Thomas Gray, William Collins, Oliver Goldsmith. Edited by Roger Lonsdale. Longman Annotated English Poets Series. London and Harlow: Longmans, 1969, 269/270.

30.1 - 34.8 'Oft ... Melancholy.'] "A deliberate pastiche of Il [...]" J. Reeves, 1973.

"A deliberate pastiche of Il Penseroso. Gray considered Milton to have been the most distinguished poet Cambridge had fostered."

The Complete English Poems of Thomas Gray. Edited with an Introduction and Notes by James Reeves. The Poetry Bookshelf series. London: Heinemann; New York: Barnes & Noble, 1973, 118.

Contribute a note or query

31 'I trod your level lawn, 9 Explanatory

27.1 - 34.8 'Ye ... Melancholy.'] "This stanza, supposed to be [...]" E. Gosse, 1884.

"This stanza, supposed to be sung by Milton, is very judiciously written in the metre which he fixed upon for the stanza of his Christmas Hymn: '' 'Twas in the winter wild,'' etc. - [Mason.]"

The Works of Thomas Gray: In Prose and Verse. Ed. by Edmund Gosse, in four vols. London: MacMillan and Co., 1912 [1st edition 1884], vol. i, 94.

27.1 - 34.8 'Ye ... Melancholy.'] "Mason remarks that ''this stanza, [...]" W. Lyon Phelps, 1894.

"Mason remarks that ''this stanza, being supposed to be sung by Milton, is very judiciously written in the metre'' of the great Christmas hymn. The stanza is also full of Miltonic expressions."

Selections from the Poetry and Prose of Thomas Gray. Ed. with an introduction and notes by William Lyon Phelps. The Athenaeum press series. Boston: Ginn & company, 1894, 175.

27.1 - 34.8 'Ye ... Melancholy.'] "''This stanza, being supposed to [...]" J. Bradshaw, 1903 [1st ed. 1891].

"''This stanza, being supposed to be sung by Milton, is very judiciously written in the metre which he fixed upon for the stanza of his Christmas Hymn; 'Twas in the winter wild,'' etc. - Mason. It is also written in the language of Milton, his very words as well as thoughts and manner being adopted: -

''when the sun begins to fling
His flaring beams, me, Goddess, bring
To arched walks of twilight groves,
And shadows brown.'' - Il Penseroso, 131-134.

''By the rushy-fringed bank,
Where grows the willow and the osier dank.'' - Comus, 890.

''Next Camus, reverend sire, went footing slow.'' - Lycidas, 103.

''Together both, ere the high lawns appeared
Under the opening eyelids of the morn
We drove afield.'' - Ib. 25, 26.
    [In the above lines Milton refers to his life at Cambridge.]

''After short blush of morn.'' - Par. Lost, xi. 185.

''The shepherds on the lawn,
Or ere the point of dawn.'' - Christmas Hymn, 85.

''I did not err; there does a sable cloud
Turn forth her silver lining on the night,
And casts a gleam over this tufted grove.'' - Comus, 223.

''The Cherub Contemplation,
And the mute Silence hist along, ...
While Cynthia checks her dragon yoke
Gently o'er the accustomed oak.
Sweet bird, that shunnest the noise of folly,
Most musical, most melancholy.'' - Il Penseroso, 54-62.

''But let my due feet never fail
To walk the studious cloister's pale'' - Ib. 155-156."

The Poetical Works of Thomas Gray: English and Latin. Edited with an introduction, life, notes and a bibliography by John Bradshaw. Reprinted edition. The Aldine edition of the British poets series. London: George Bell and sons, 1903 [1st edition 1891], 240/241.

27.1 - 34.8 'Ye ... Melancholy.'] "This stanza being supposed to [...]" D.C. Tovey, 1922 [1st ed. 1898].

"This stanza being supposed to be sung by Milton is very judiciously written in the metre which he fixed upon for the stanza of his Christmas-hymn '''Twas in the winter wild,'' &c.   Mason."

Gray's English Poems, Original and Translated from the Norse and Welsh. Edited by Duncan C. Tovey. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1922 [1st ed. 1898], 284.

27.1 - 34.8 'Ye ... Melancholy.'] "This stanza, being supposed to [...]" H.W. Starr/J.R. Hendrickson, 1966.

"This stanza, being supposed to be sung by Milton, is very judiciously written in the metre which he fixed upon for the stanza of his Christmas-hymn.
'Twas in [It was] the winter wild, &c. [On the Morning of Christ's Nativity: The Hymn, l. 29] M[ason]."

The Complete Poems of Thomas Gray: English, Latin and Greek. Edited by Herbert W. Starr and J. R. Hendrickson. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1966, 227.

27.1 - 34.8 'Ye ... Melancholy.'] "'This stanza spoken by Milton [...]" R. Lonsdale, 1969.

"'This stanza spoken by Milton is judiciously distributed into the same measure, as that in which the great poet composed his sublime Hymn on the Nativity; except that the last verse but one in Mr. Gray's sonnet is longer by two syllables than the corresponding verse in his original' (Wakefield, 1786, pp. 149-50, expanding an observation of Mason, Poems p. 98)."

The Poems of Thomas Gray, William Collins, Oliver Goldsmith. Edited by Roger Lonsdale. Longman Annotated English Poets Series. London and Harlow: Longmans, 1969, 269.

30.1 - 34.8 'Oft ... Melancholy.'] "Bradshaw collects the Miltonic passages [...]" D.C. Tovey, 1922 [1st ed. 1898].

"Bradshaw collects the Miltonic passages which Gray had in mind in this imitation, ll. 27-34:

''Together both, ere the high lawns appeared
Under the opening eyelids of the morn,
We drove afield.''         Lycidas, 25, 26.
(Milton, as Bradshaw remarks, is here speaking of his life at Cambridge.)
''After short blush of morn.'' Par. Lost, XI. 184.
''The shepherds on the lawn
Or ere the point of dawn'' Christmas Hymn, 85.
''I did not err: there does a sable cloud
Turn forth her silver lining on the night,
And casts a gleam over this tufted grove.''
        Comus, ll. 223-225.
And Il Penseroso (l. 54), the Cherub Contemplation (cf. l. 28 here); and the rhyme, Ib. 61, 62,
''Sweet bird, that shunn'st the noise of folly,
Most musical, most melancholy''
(cf. ll. 33, 34); also 'the studious cloister's pale.' Ib. l. 155."

Gray's English Poems, Original and Translated from the Norse and Welsh. Edited by Duncan C. Tovey. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1922 [1st ed. 1898], 285.

30.1 - 34.8 'Oft ... Melancholy.'] "These lines are a deliberate [...]" R. Lonsdale, 1969.

"These lines are a deliberate pastiche of Milton, Il Penseroso 61-7: 'Sweet Bird that shunn'st the noise of folly, / Most musicall, most melancholy! / Thee Chauntress oft the Woods among, / I woo to hear thy eeven-Song; / And missing thee, I walk unseen / On the dry smooth-shaven Green, / To behold the wandring Moon.' But there are other Miltonic echoes: e.g. 'After short blush of Morn', Par. Lost xi 184; 'The Shepherds on the Lawn, / Or ere the point of dawn', Nativity Ode 85-6; 'there does a sable cloud / Turn forth her silver lining on the night, / And casts a gleam over this tufted Grove', Comus 223-5; 'ere the high Lawns appear'd / Under the opening eye-lids of the morn', Lycidas 25-6."

The Poems of Thomas Gray, William Collins, Oliver Goldsmith. Edited by Roger Lonsdale. Longman Annotated English Poets Series. London and Harlow: Longmans, 1969, 269/270.

30.1 - 34.8 'Oft ... Melancholy.'] "A deliberate pastiche of Il [...]" J. Reeves, 1973.

"A deliberate pastiche of Il Penseroso. Gray considered Milton to have been the most distinguished poet Cambridge had fostered."

The Complete English Poems of Thomas Gray. Edited with an Introduction and Notes by James Reeves. The Poetry Bookshelf series. London: Heinemann; New York: Barnes & Noble, 1973, 118.

Contribute a note or query

32 'Oft wooed the gleam of Cynthia silver-bright 11 Explanatory

27.1 - 34.8 'Ye ... Melancholy.'] "This stanza, supposed to be [...]" E. Gosse, 1884.

"This stanza, supposed to be sung by Milton, is very judiciously written in the metre which he fixed upon for the stanza of his Christmas Hymn: '' 'Twas in the winter wild,'' etc. - [Mason.]"

The Works of Thomas Gray: In Prose and Verse. Ed. by Edmund Gosse, in four vols. London: MacMillan and Co., 1912 [1st edition 1884], vol. i, 94.

27.1 - 34.8 'Ye ... Melancholy.'] "Mason remarks that ''this stanza, [...]" W. Lyon Phelps, 1894.

"Mason remarks that ''this stanza, being supposed to be sung by Milton, is very judiciously written in the metre'' of the great Christmas hymn. The stanza is also full of Miltonic expressions."

Selections from the Poetry and Prose of Thomas Gray. Ed. with an introduction and notes by William Lyon Phelps. The Athenaeum press series. Boston: Ginn & company, 1894, 175.

27.1 - 34.8 'Ye ... Melancholy.'] "''This stanza, being supposed to [...]" J. Bradshaw, 1903 [1st ed. 1891].

"''This stanza, being supposed to be sung by Milton, is very judiciously written in the metre which he fixed upon for the stanza of his Christmas Hymn; 'Twas in the winter wild,'' etc. - Mason. It is also written in the language of Milton, his very words as well as thoughts and manner being adopted: -

''when the sun begins to fling
His flaring beams, me, Goddess, bring
To arched walks of twilight groves,
And shadows brown.'' - Il Penseroso, 131-134.

''By the rushy-fringed bank,
Where grows the willow and the osier dank.'' - Comus, 890.

''Next Camus, reverend sire, went footing slow.'' - Lycidas, 103.

''Together both, ere the high lawns appeared
Under the opening eyelids of the morn
We drove afield.'' - Ib. 25, 26.
    [In the above lines Milton refers to his life at Cambridge.]

''After short blush of morn.'' - Par. Lost, xi. 185.

''The shepherds on the lawn,
Or ere the point of dawn.'' - Christmas Hymn, 85.

''I did not err; there does a sable cloud
Turn forth her silver lining on the night,
And casts a gleam over this tufted grove.'' - Comus, 223.

''The Cherub Contemplation,
And the mute Silence hist along, ...
While Cynthia checks her dragon yoke
Gently o'er the accustomed oak.
Sweet bird, that shunnest the noise of folly,
Most musical, most melancholy.'' - Il Penseroso, 54-62.

''But let my due feet never fail
To walk the studious cloister's pale'' - Ib. 155-156."

The Poetical Works of Thomas Gray: English and Latin. Edited with an introduction, life, notes and a bibliography by John Bradshaw. Reprinted edition. The Aldine edition of the British poets series. London: George Bell and sons, 1903 [1st edition 1891], 240/241.

27.1 - 34.8 'Ye ... Melancholy.'] "This stanza being supposed to [...]" D.C. Tovey, 1922 [1st ed. 1898].

"This stanza being supposed to be sung by Milton is very judiciously written in the metre which he fixed upon for the stanza of his Christmas-hymn '''Twas in the winter wild,'' &c.   Mason."

Gray's English Poems, Original and Translated from the Norse and Welsh. Edited by Duncan C. Tovey. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1922 [1st ed. 1898], 284.

27.1 - 34.8 'Ye ... Melancholy.'] "This stanza, being supposed to [...]" H.W. Starr/J.R. Hendrickson, 1966.

"This stanza, being supposed to be sung by Milton, is very judiciously written in the metre which he fixed upon for the stanza of his Christmas-hymn.
'Twas in [It was] the winter wild, &c. [On the Morning of Christ's Nativity: The Hymn, l. 29] M[ason]."

The Complete Poems of Thomas Gray: English, Latin and Greek. Edited by Herbert W. Starr and J. R. Hendrickson. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1966, 227.

27.1 - 34.8 'Ye ... Melancholy.'] "'This stanza spoken by Milton [...]" R. Lonsdale, 1969.

"'This stanza spoken by Milton is judiciously distributed into the same measure, as that in which the great poet composed his sublime Hymn on the Nativity; except that the last verse but one in Mr. Gray's sonnet is longer by two syllables than the corresponding verse in his original' (Wakefield, 1786, pp. 149-50, expanding an observation of Mason, Poems p. 98)."

The Poems of Thomas Gray, William Collins, Oliver Goldsmith. Edited by Roger Lonsdale. Longman Annotated English Poets Series. London and Harlow: Longmans, 1969, 269.

30.1 - 34.8 'Oft ... Melancholy.'] "Bradshaw collects the Miltonic passages [...]" D.C. Tovey, 1922 [1st ed. 1898].

"Bradshaw collects the Miltonic passages which Gray had in mind in this imitation, ll. 27-34:

''Together both, ere the high lawns appeared
Under the opening eyelids of the morn,
We drove afield.''         Lycidas, 25, 26.
(Milton, as Bradshaw remarks, is here speaking of his life at Cambridge.)
''After short blush of morn.'' Par. Lost, XI. 184.
''The shepherds on the lawn
Or ere the point of dawn'' Christmas Hymn, 85.
''I did not err: there does a sable cloud
Turn forth her silver lining on the night,
And casts a gleam over this tufted grove.''
        Comus, ll. 223-225.
And Il Penseroso (l. 54), the Cherub Contemplation (cf. l. 28 here); and the rhyme, Ib. 61, 62,
''Sweet bird, that shunn'st the noise of folly,
Most musical, most melancholy''
(cf. ll. 33, 34); also 'the studious cloister's pale.' Ib. l. 155."

Gray's English Poems, Original and Translated from the Norse and Welsh. Edited by Duncan C. Tovey. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1922 [1st ed. 1898], 285.

30.1 - 34.8 'Oft ... Melancholy.'] "These lines are a deliberate [...]" R. Lonsdale, 1969.

"These lines are a deliberate pastiche of Milton, Il Penseroso 61-7: 'Sweet Bird that shunn'st the noise of folly, / Most musicall, most melancholy! / Thee Chauntress oft the Woods among, / I woo to hear thy eeven-Song; / And missing thee, I walk unseen / On the dry smooth-shaven Green, / To behold the wandring Moon.' But there are other Miltonic echoes: e.g. 'After short blush of Morn', Par. Lost xi 184; 'The Shepherds on the Lawn, / Or ere the point of dawn', Nativity Ode 85-6; 'there does a sable cloud / Turn forth her silver lining on the night, / And casts a gleam over this tufted Grove', Comus 223-5; 'ere the high Lawns appear'd / Under the opening eye-lids of the morn', Lycidas 25-6."

The Poems of Thomas Gray, William Collins, Oliver Goldsmith. Edited by Roger Lonsdale. Longman Annotated English Poets Series. London and Harlow: Longmans, 1969, 269/270.

30.1 - 34.8 'Oft ... Melancholy.'] "A deliberate pastiche of Il [...]" J. Reeves, 1973.

"A deliberate pastiche of Il Penseroso. Gray considered Milton to have been the most distinguished poet Cambridge had fostered."

The Complete English Poems of Thomas Gray. Edited with an Introduction and Notes by James Reeves. The Poetry Bookshelf series. London: Heinemann; New York: Barnes & Noble, 1973, 118.

32.7 silver-bright] "is Shakespearian: ''Their armours, that [...]" D.C. Tovey, 1922 [1st ed. 1898].

"is Shakespearian:

''Their armours, that march'd hence so silver-bright.''
            K. John, II. 1. 315.
In this 'airy pageant' first is seen the session of the 'few whom genius gave to shine,' and Milton, a son of Granta, speaks as their representative. Then comes a procession through the heavenly portal of royal or noble founders and patrons. The conception is striking; its only defect is that Milton's song, even by its form, seems to be the beginning of a new turn in the poem, instead of the end of the first part; we are expecting Milton to go on, when he is interrupted, without ceremony, by the appearance of these important personages."

Gray's English Poems, Original and Translated from the Norse and Welsh. Edited by Duncan C. Tovey. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1922 [1st ed. 1898], 285.

32.7 silver-bright] "'Their armours that marched hence [...]" R. Lonsdale, 1969.

"'Their armours that marched hence so silver-bright', King John II i 315; William Drummond, Sonnet xiii 7-8: 'with silver bright / Who moon enamels'."

The Poems of Thomas Gray, William Collins, Oliver Goldsmith. Edited by Roger Lonsdale. Longman Annotated English Poets Series. London and Harlow: Longmans, 1969, 270.

Contribute a note or query

33 'In cloisters dim, far from the haunts of Folly, 10 Explanatory

27.1 - 34.8 'Ye ... Melancholy.'] "This stanza, supposed to be [...]" E. Gosse, 1884.

"This stanza, supposed to be sung by Milton, is very judiciously written in the metre which he fixed upon for the stanza of his Christmas Hymn: '' 'Twas in the winter wild,'' etc. - [Mason.]"

The Works of Thomas Gray: In Prose and Verse. Ed. by Edmund Gosse, in four vols. London: MacMillan and Co., 1912 [1st edition 1884], vol. i, 94.

27.1 - 34.8 'Ye ... Melancholy.'] "Mason remarks that ''this stanza, [...]" W. Lyon Phelps, 1894.

"Mason remarks that ''this stanza, being supposed to be sung by Milton, is very judiciously written in the metre'' of the great Christmas hymn. The stanza is also full of Miltonic expressions."

Selections from the Poetry and Prose of Thomas Gray. Ed. with an introduction and notes by William Lyon Phelps. The Athenaeum press series. Boston: Ginn & company, 1894, 175.

27.1 - 34.8 'Ye ... Melancholy.'] "''This stanza, being supposed to [...]" J. Bradshaw, 1903 [1st ed. 1891].

"''This stanza, being supposed to be sung by Milton, is very judiciously written in the metre which he fixed upon for the stanza of his Christmas Hymn; 'Twas in the winter wild,'' etc. - Mason. It is also written in the language of Milton, his very words as well as thoughts and manner being adopted: -

''when the sun begins to fling
His flaring beams, me, Goddess, bring
To arched walks of twilight groves,
And shadows brown.'' - Il Penseroso, 131-134.

''By the rushy-fringed bank,
Where grows the willow and the osier dank.'' - Comus, 890.

''Next Camus, reverend sire, went footing slow.'' - Lycidas, 103.

''Together both, ere the high lawns appeared
Under the opening eyelids of the morn
We drove afield.'' - Ib. 25, 26.
    [In the above lines Milton refers to his life at Cambridge.]

''After short blush of morn.'' - Par. Lost, xi. 185.

''The shepherds on the lawn,
Or ere the point of dawn.'' - Christmas Hymn, 85.

''I did not err; there does a sable cloud
Turn forth her silver lining on the night,
And casts a gleam over this tufted grove.'' - Comus, 223.

''The Cherub Contemplation,
And the mute Silence hist along, ...
While Cynthia checks her dragon yoke
Gently o'er the accustomed oak.
Sweet bird, that shunnest the noise of folly,
Most musical, most melancholy.'' - Il Penseroso, 54-62.

''But let my due feet never fail
To walk the studious cloister's pale'' - Ib. 155-156."

The Poetical Works of Thomas Gray: English and Latin. Edited with an introduction, life, notes and a bibliography by John Bradshaw. Reprinted edition. The Aldine edition of the British poets series. London: George Bell and sons, 1903 [1st edition 1891], 240/241.

27.1 - 34.8 'Ye ... Melancholy.'] "This stanza being supposed to [...]" D.C. Tovey, 1922 [1st ed. 1898].

"This stanza being supposed to be sung by Milton is very judiciously written in the metre which he fixed upon for the stanza of his Christmas-hymn '''Twas in the winter wild,'' &c.   Mason."

Gray's English Poems, Original and Translated from the Norse and Welsh. Edited by Duncan C. Tovey. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1922 [1st ed. 1898], 284.

27.1 - 34.8 'Ye ... Melancholy.'] "This stanza, being supposed to [...]" H.W. Starr/J.R. Hendrickson, 1966.

"This stanza, being supposed to be sung by Milton, is very judiciously written in the metre which he fixed upon for the stanza of his Christmas-hymn.
'Twas in [It was] the winter wild, &c. [On the Morning of Christ's Nativity: The Hymn, l. 29] M[ason]."

The Complete Poems of Thomas Gray: English, Latin and Greek. Edited by Herbert W. Starr and J. R. Hendrickson. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1966, 227.

27.1 - 34.8 'Ye ... Melancholy.'] "'This stanza spoken by Milton [...]" R. Lonsdale, 1969.

"'This stanza spoken by Milton is judiciously distributed into the same measure, as that in which the great poet composed his sublime Hymn on the Nativity; except that the last verse but one in Mr. Gray's sonnet is longer by two syllables than the corresponding verse in his original' (Wakefield, 1786, pp. 149-50, expanding an observation of Mason, Poems p. 98)."

The Poems of Thomas Gray, William Collins, Oliver Goldsmith. Edited by Roger Lonsdale. Longman Annotated English Poets Series. London and Harlow: Longmans, 1969, 269.

30.1 - 34.8 'Oft ... Melancholy.'] "Bradshaw collects the Miltonic passages [...]" D.C. Tovey, 1922 [1st ed. 1898].

"Bradshaw collects the Miltonic passages which Gray had in mind in this imitation, ll. 27-34:

''Together both, ere the high lawns appeared
Under the opening eyelids of the morn,
We drove afield.''         Lycidas, 25, 26.
(Milton, as Bradshaw remarks, is here speaking of his life at Cambridge.)
''After short blush of morn.'' Par. Lost, XI. 184.
''The shepherds on the lawn
Or ere the point of dawn'' Christmas Hymn, 85.
''I did not err: there does a sable cloud
Turn forth her silver lining on the night,
And casts a gleam over this tufted grove.''
        Comus, ll. 223-225.
And Il Penseroso (l. 54), the Cherub Contemplation (cf. l. 28 here); and the rhyme, Ib. 61, 62,
''Sweet bird, that shunn'st the noise of folly,
Most musical, most melancholy''
(cf. ll. 33, 34); also 'the studious cloister's pale.' Ib. l. 155."

Gray's English Poems, Original and Translated from the Norse and Welsh. Edited by Duncan C. Tovey. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1922 [1st ed. 1898], 285.

30.1 - 34.8 'Oft ... Melancholy.'] "These lines are a deliberate [...]" R. Lonsdale, 1969.

"These lines are a deliberate pastiche of Milton, Il Penseroso 61-7: 'Sweet Bird that shunn'st the noise of folly, / Most musicall, most melancholy! / Thee Chauntress oft the Woods among, / I woo to hear thy eeven-Song; / And missing thee, I walk unseen / On the dry smooth-shaven Green, / To behold the wandring Moon.' But there are other Miltonic echoes: e.g. 'After short blush of Morn', Par. Lost xi 184; 'The Shepherds on the Lawn, / Or ere the point of dawn', Nativity Ode 85-6; 'there does a sable cloud / Turn forth her silver lining on the night, / And casts a gleam over this tufted Grove', Comus 223-5; 'ere the high Lawns appear'd / Under the opening eye-lids of the morn', Lycidas 25-6."

The Poems of Thomas Gray, William Collins, Oliver Goldsmith. Edited by Roger Lonsdale. Longman Annotated English Poets Series. London and Harlow: Longmans, 1969, 269/270.

30.1 - 34.8 'Oft ... Melancholy.'] "A deliberate pastiche of Il [...]" J. Reeves, 1973.

"A deliberate pastiche of Il Penseroso. Gray considered Milton to have been the most distinguished poet Cambridge had fostered."

The Complete English Poems of Thomas Gray. Edited with an Introduction and Notes by James Reeves. The Poetry Bookshelf series. London: Heinemann; New York: Barnes & Noble, 1973, 118.

33.1-9 'In ... Folly,] "'the studious Cloysters pale', Milton, [...]" R. Lonsdale, 1969.

"'the studious Cloysters pale', Milton, Il Penseroso 156, and 'Far from the cheerfull haunt of men', Comus 388; 'Hence from the haunts / Of vice and folly, vanity and man', David Mallet, The Excursion i 11-2."

The Poems of Thomas Gray, William Collins, Oliver Goldsmith. Edited by Roger Lonsdale. Longman Annotated English Poets Series. London and Harlow: Longmans, 1969, 270.

Contribute a note or query

34 'With Freedom by my side, and soft-eyed Melancholy.' 10 Explanatory

27.1 - 34.8 'Ye ... Melancholy.'] "This stanza, supposed to be [...]" E. Gosse, 1884.

"This stanza, supposed to be sung by Milton, is very judiciously written in the metre which he fixed upon for the stanza of his Christmas Hymn: '' 'Twas in the winter wild,'' etc. - [Mason.]"

The Works of Thomas Gray: In Prose and Verse. Ed. by Edmund Gosse, in four vols. London: MacMillan and Co., 1912 [1st edition 1884], vol. i, 94.

27.1 - 34.8 'Ye ... Melancholy.'] "Mason remarks that ''this stanza, [...]" W. Lyon Phelps, 1894.

"Mason remarks that ''this stanza, being supposed to be sung by Milton, is very judiciously written in the metre'' of the great Christmas hymn. The stanza is also full of Miltonic expressions."

Selections from the Poetry and Prose of Thomas Gray. Ed. with an introduction and notes by William Lyon Phelps. The Athenaeum press series. Boston: Ginn & company, 1894, 175.

27.1 - 34.8 'Ye ... Melancholy.'] "''This stanza, being supposed to [...]" J. Bradshaw, 1903 [1st ed. 1891].

"''This stanza, being supposed to be sung by Milton, is very judiciously written in the metre which he fixed upon for the stanza of his Christmas Hymn; 'Twas in the winter wild,'' etc. - Mason. It is also written in the language of Milton, his very words as well as thoughts and manner being adopted: -

''when the sun begins to fling
His flaring beams, me, Goddess, bring
To arched walks of twilight groves,
And shadows brown.'' - Il Penseroso, 131-134.

''By the rushy-fringed bank,
Where grows the willow and the osier dank.'' - Comus, 890.

''Next Camus, reverend sire, went footing slow.'' - Lycidas, 103.

''Together both, ere the high lawns appeared
Under the opening eyelids of the morn
We drove afield.'' - Ib. 25, 26.
    [In the above lines Milton refers to his life at Cambridge.]

''After short blush of morn.'' - Par. Lost, xi. 185.

''The shepherds on the lawn,
Or ere the point of dawn.'' - Christmas Hymn, 85.

''I did not err; there does a sable cloud
Turn forth her silver lining on the night,
And casts a gleam over this tufted grove.'' - Comus, 223.

''The Cherub Contemplation,
And the mute Silence hist along, ...
While Cynthia checks her dragon yoke
Gently o'er the accustomed oak.
Sweet bird, that shunnest the noise of folly,
Most musical, most melancholy.'' - Il Penseroso, 54-62.

''But let my due feet never fail
To walk the studious cloister's pale'' - Ib. 155-156."

The Poetical Works of Thomas Gray: English and Latin. Edited with an introduction, life, notes and a bibliography by John Bradshaw. Reprinted edition. The Aldine edition of the British poets series. London: George Bell and sons, 1903 [1st edition 1891], 240/241.

27.1 - 34.8 'Ye ... Melancholy.'] "This stanza being supposed to [...]" D.C. Tovey, 1922 [1st ed. 1898].

"This stanza being supposed to be sung by Milton is very judiciously written in the metre which he fixed upon for the stanza of his Christmas-hymn '''Twas in the winter wild,'' &c.   Mason."

Gray's English Poems, Original and Translated from the Norse and Welsh. Edited by Duncan C. Tovey. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1922 [1st ed. 1898], 284.

27.1 - 34.8 'Ye ... Melancholy.'] "This stanza, being supposed to [...]" H.W. Starr/J.R. Hendrickson, 1966.

"This stanza, being supposed to be sung by Milton, is very judiciously written in the metre which he fixed upon for the stanza of his Christmas-hymn.
'Twas in [It was] the winter wild, &c. [On the Morning of Christ's Nativity: The Hymn, l. 29] M[ason]."

The Complete Poems of Thomas Gray: English, Latin and Greek. Edited by Herbert W. Starr and J. R. Hendrickson. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1966, 227.

27.1 - 34.8 'Ye ... Melancholy.'] "'This stanza spoken by Milton [...]" R. Lonsdale, 1969.

"'This stanza spoken by Milton is judiciously distributed into the same measure, as that in which the great poet composed his sublime Hymn on the Nativity; except that the last verse but one in Mr. Gray's sonnet is longer by two syllables than the corresponding verse in his original' (Wakefield, 1786, pp. 149-50, expanding an observation of Mason, Poems p. 98)."

The Poems of Thomas Gray, William Collins, Oliver Goldsmith. Edited by Roger Lonsdale. Longman Annotated English Poets Series. London and Harlow: Longmans, 1969, 269.

30.1 - 34.8 'Oft ... Melancholy.'] "Bradshaw collects the Miltonic passages [...]" D.C. Tovey, 1922 [1st ed. 1898].

"Bradshaw collects the Miltonic passages which Gray had in mind in this imitation, ll. 27-34:

''Together both, ere the high lawns appeared
Under the opening eyelids of the morn,
We drove afield.''         Lycidas, 25, 26.
(Milton, as Bradshaw remarks, is here speaking of his life at Cambridge.)
''After short blush of morn.'' Par. Lost, XI. 184.
''The shepherds on the lawn
Or ere the point of dawn'' Christmas Hymn, 85.
''I did not err: there does a sable cloud
Turn forth her silver lining on the night,
And casts a gleam over this tufted grove.''
        Comus, ll. 223-225.
And Il Penseroso (l. 54), the Cherub Contemplation (cf. l. 28 here); and the rhyme, Ib. 61, 62,
''Sweet bird, that shunn'st the noise of folly,
Most musical, most melancholy''
(cf. ll. 33, 34); also 'the studious cloister's pale.' Ib. l. 155."

Gray's English Poems, Original and Translated from the Norse and Welsh. Edited by Duncan C. Tovey. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1922 [1st ed. 1898], 285.

30.1 - 34.8 'Oft ... Melancholy.'] "These lines are a deliberate [...]" R. Lonsdale, 1969.

"These lines are a deliberate pastiche of Milton, Il Penseroso 61-7: 'Sweet Bird that shunn'st the noise of folly, / Most musicall, most melancholy! / Thee Chauntress oft the Woods among, / I woo to hear thy eeven-Song; / And missing thee, I walk unseen / On the dry smooth-shaven Green, / To behold the wandring Moon.' But there are other Miltonic echoes: e.g. 'After short blush of Morn', Par. Lost xi 184; 'The Shepherds on the Lawn, / Or ere the point of dawn', Nativity Ode 85-6; 'there does a sable cloud / Turn forth her silver lining on the night, / And casts a gleam over this tufted Grove', Comus 223-5; 'ere the high Lawns appear'd / Under the opening eye-lids of the morn', Lycidas 25-6."

The Poems of Thomas Gray, William Collins, Oliver Goldsmith. Edited by Roger Lonsdale. Longman Annotated English Poets Series. London and Harlow: Longmans, 1969, 269/270.

30.1 - 34.8 'Oft ... Melancholy.'] "A deliberate pastiche of Il [...]" J. Reeves, 1973.

"A deliberate pastiche of Il Penseroso. Gray considered Milton to have been the most distinguished poet Cambridge had fostered."

The Complete English Poems of Thomas Gray. Edited with an Introduction and Notes by James Reeves. The Poetry Bookshelf series. London: Heinemann; New York: Barnes & Noble, 1973, 118.

34.7-8 soft-eyed Melancholy.'] "'Or from the soft-ey'd Virgin [...]" R. Lonsdale, 1969.

"'Or from the soft-ey'd Virgin steal a tear', Pope, Epistle to Arbuthnot 286; and 'sensible soft Melancholy', Pope, On a Certain Lady at Court 8."

The Poems of Thomas Gray, William Collins, Oliver Goldsmith. Edited by Roger Lonsdale. Longman Annotated English Poets Series. London and Harlow: Longmans, 1969, 270.

Contribute a note or query


Recitative

35 But hark! the portals sound and, pacing forth 2 Explanatory

35.3-5 the ... sound] "i.e., the doors are opened. [...]" J. Bradshaw, 1903 [1st ed. 1891].

"i.e., the doors are opened. Portals occurs only twice in ''Paradise Lost,'' iii. 508, vii. 575, and in each place refers to the gates of heaven; and in this sense Gray uses it again in his lines in the epitaph on Mrs. Mason."

The Poetical Works of Thomas Gray: English and Latin. Edited with an introduction, life, notes and a bibliography by John Bradshaw. Reprinted edition. The Aldine edition of the British poets series. London: George Bell and sons, 1903 [1st edition 1891], 241.

35.4 portals] "Portals is used by Gray [...]" Alexander Huber, 2000.

"Portals is used by Gray for both the gates of heaven and the gates of hell; for the latter use cf. ''The Descent of Odin,'' 16."

Alexander Huber <huber@thomasgray.org> (SUB Göttingen), URL: http://www.thomasgray.org/. Contributed on Sun Jul 23 10:53:18 2000 GMT.

Contribute a note or query

36 With solemn steps and slow, 1 Explanatory

36.1-5 With ... slow,] "'With wandring steps and slow', [...]" R. Lonsdale, 1969.

"'With wandring steps and slow', Par. Lost xii 648; 'with solemn pace and slow', Pope, Odyssey xi 397; 'with pensive steps and slow', ibid x 286; 'By timid steps, and slow', Dunciad iv 465."

The Poems of Thomas Gray, William Collins, Oliver Goldsmith. Edited by Roger Lonsdale. Longman Annotated English Poets Series. London and Harlow: Longmans, 1969, 270.

Contribute a note or query

37 High potentates and dames of royal birth 1 Explanatory

37.1 - 38.7 High ... go:] "Benefactors of the University." R. Lonsdale, 1969.

"Benefactors of the University."

The Poems of Thomas Gray, William Collins, Oliver Goldsmith. Edited by Roger Lonsdale. Longman Annotated English Poets Series. London and Harlow: Longmans, 1969, 270.

Contribute a note or query

38 And mitred fathers in long order go: 3 Explanatory

37.1 - 38.7 High ... go:] "Benefactors of the University." R. Lonsdale, 1969.

"Benefactors of the University."

The Poems of Thomas Gray, William Collins, Oliver Goldsmith. Edited by Roger Lonsdale. Longman Annotated English Poets Series. London and Harlow: Longmans, 1969, 270.

38.2-3 mitred fathers] "Among these Hugh de Balsham, [...]" D.C. Tovey, 1922 [1st ed. 1898].

"Among these Hugh de Balsham, Bishop of Ely, founder of Peterhouse, the oldest of Cambridge colleges, Gray's college up to 1756, and the college to which the Duke of Grafton's name was attached. Gray escapes the necessity of paying any distinct tribute to Peterhouse* [*Footnote: 'Gray to Wharton, March 25, 1756, ''I left my lodgings, because the rooms were noisy and the People of the house dirty.'' See on l. 2.'] by connecting Grafton's name with that of his ancestress, 'the venerable Margaret,' l. 66."

Gray's English Poems, Original and Translated from the Norse and Welsh. Edited by Duncan C. Tovey. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1922 [1st ed. 1898], 285/286.

38.5-6 long order] "Cp. Unde omnis longo ordine [...]" R. Lonsdale, 1969.

"Cp. Unde omnis longo ordine posset / adversos legere (whence, face to face, he might scan all the long array), Aeneid vi 754-5. The phrase is a common formula in heroic poetry: e.g. Fairfax's Tasso XII xcv 1; Dryden, Aeneid i 984, ii 1043, iii 533, v 133; Pope, Iliad i 643, and Imitations of Horace, Ep. II i 316."

The Poems of Thomas Gray, William Collins, Oliver Goldsmith. Edited by Roger Lonsdale. Longman Annotated English Poets Series. London and Harlow: Longmans, 1969, 270.

Contribute a note or query

39 Great Edward with the lilies on his brow 7 Explanatory

39.1-2 Great Edward] "Edward III., who in 1340 [...]" W. Lyon Phelps, 1894.

"Edward III., who in 1340 formally claimed to be king of France; and quartered the French arms (the fleur de lys) with his own."

Selections from the Poetry and Prose of Thomas Gray. Ed. with an introduction and notes by William Lyon Phelps. The Athenaeum press series. Boston: Ginn & company, 1894, 175.

39.1-2 Great Edward] "''Edward the Third, who added [...]" J. Bradshaw, 1903 [1st ed. 1891].

"''Edward the Third, who added the fleur-de-lys of France to the arms of England. He founded Trinity College.'' - Mason. Mitford quotes from Denham: - ''Great Edward, and thy greater son, / He that the lilies wore, and he that won.''"

The Poetical Works of Thomas Gray: English and Latin. Edited with an introduction, life, notes and a bibliography by John Bradshaw. Reprinted edition. The Aldine edition of the British poets series. London: George Bell and sons, 1903 [1st edition 1891], 241.

39.1-2 Great Edward] "Edward the Third; who added [...]" D.C. Tovey, 1922 [1st ed. 1898].

"Edward the Third; who added the fleur de lys of France to the arms of England. He founded Trinity College. (Mason.) Trinity College was consolidated by Henry VIII. out of several earlier foundations, including King's Hall, founded by Edward III. in 1337."

Gray's English Poems, Original and Translated from the Norse and Welsh. Edited by Duncan C. Tovey. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1922 [1st ed. 1898], 286.

39.1-2 Great Edward] "Edward the Third [1312-77]; who [...]" H.W. Starr/J.R. Hendrickson, 1966.

"Edward the Third [1312-77]; who added the fleur de lys of France to the arms of England. He founded Trinity College. M[ason]. He actually founded King's Hall, which much later was one of the foundations consolidated into Trinity."

The Complete Poems of Thomas Gray: English, Latin and Greek. Edited by Herbert W. Starr and J. R. Hendrickson. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1966, 227.

39.1-2 Great Edward] "Edward the Third [1312-77]; who [...]" R. Lonsdale, 1969.

"Edward the Third [1312-77]; who added the fleur de lys of France to the arms of England. He founded Trinity College. Mason.
Trinity was actually founded by Henry VIII from other foundations, including King's Hall, established by Edward III in 1337. Edward proclaimed himself King of France in 1340 and thereafter 'quartered the lilies of France with the leopards of England' (DNB). The lilies were frequently associated with him by the poets: cf. Denham, Cooper's Hill 77-8: 'But thee (great Edward) and thy greater son, / (The lillies which his father wore, he won)'; Pope, Windsor Forest 303-6, describing Edward III, mentions 'The Lillies blazing on the Regal Shield'; John Dart, Westminster Abbey (1723) I xvi: 'Draw mighty Edward as he conq'ring stood, / The Lillies on his Shield stain'd red with Gallick Blood.' Cp. also Thomson, Summer 1484-6: 'With him thy Edwards and thy Henrys shine, / Names dear to fame; the first who deep impressed / On haughty Gaul the terror of thy arms.'"

The Poems of Thomas Gray, William Collins, Oliver Goldsmith. Edited by Roger Lonsdale. Longman Annotated English Poets Series. London and Harlow: Longmans, 1969, 270/271.

39.1-8 Great ... brow] "A reference to Edward III, [...]" J. Reeves, 1973.

"A reference to Edward III, founder of Trinity College. The lilies were those of conquered France."

The Complete English Poems of Thomas Gray. Edited with an Introduction and Notes by James Reeves. The Poetry Bookshelf series. London: Heinemann; New York: Barnes & Noble, 1973, 118.

39.1-8 Great ... brow] "Edward the Third, who founded [...]" J. Heath-Stubbs, 1981.

"Edward the Third, who founded King's Hall, later incorporated in Trinity College. He added the fleur-de-lys of France to the arms of England, in consequence of his claim to the French throne."

Thomas Gray: Selected Poems. Ed. by John Heath-Stubbs. Manchester: Carcanet New Press Ltd., 1981, 80.

Contribute a note or query

40 From haughty Gallia torn,
41 And sad Chatillon, on her bridal morn 7 Explanatory

41.2-3 sad Chatillon,] "Aymer de Valence married, as [...]" W. Lyon Phelps, 1894.

"Aymer de Valence married, as his third wife, Marie de Castillon (Chatillon), daughter of Guy IV., count of St. Pol, 5 July 1321; he died suddenly (murder was suspected) near Paris, 23 June 1324. See Annales Paulini, in Stubbs, Chronicles of the Reigns of Edward I. and Edward II., I, 292, 307. His widow, who founded Pembroke Hall in 1343, long survived him."

Selections from the Poetry and Prose of Thomas Gray. Ed. with an introduction and notes by William Lyon Phelps. The Athenaeum press series. Boston: Ginn & company, 1894, 175.

41.2-3 sad Chatillon,] "''Mary de Valentia, Countess of [...]" J. Bradshaw, 1903 [1st ed. 1891].

"''Mary de Valentia, Countess of Pembroke, daughter of Guy de Chatillon, Comte de St. Paul in France; of whom tradition says that her husband, Audemar de Valentia, Earl of Pembroke, was slain at a tournament on the day of his nuptials. She was the foundress of Pembroke College or Hall, under the name of Aula Mariae de Valentia.'' - Mason."

The Poetical Works of Thomas Gray: English and Latin. Edited with an introduction, life, notes and a bibliography by John Bradshaw. Reprinted edition. The Aldine edition of the British poets series. London: George Bell and sons, 1903 [1st edition 1891], 241.

41.2-3 sad Chatillon,] "Mary de Valentia, Countess of [...]" D.C. Tovey, 1922 [1st ed. 1898].

"Mary de Valentia, Countess of Pembroke, daughter of Guy de Chatillon, Comte de St Paul in France: of whom tradition says, that her husband Audemar de Valentia, Earl of Pembroke, was slain at a Tournament on the day of his nuptials. She was the Foundress of Pembroke College or Hall, under the name of Aula Mariae de Valentia. Mason.
To this tradition Gray's words are accommodated, but Phelps notes the facts as far as known to history. ''Aymer de Valence married, as his third wife, Marie de Castillon (Chatillon), daughter of Guy IV., Count of St Pol, 5 July, 1321; he died suddenly (murder was suspected) near Paris, 23 June, 1324. His widow, who founded Pembroke Hall in 1343, long survived him.'' "

Gray's English Poems, Original and Translated from the Norse and Welsh. Edited by Duncan C. Tovey. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1922 [1st ed. 1898], 286.

41.3 Chatillon,] "Mary de Valentia [Marie de [...]" H.W. Starr/J.R. Hendrickson, 1966.

"Mary de Valentia [Marie de Castillon], Countess of Pembroke, daughter of Guy de Chatillon Comte de St. Paul in France; of whom tradition says, that her husband Audemar de Valentia [Aymer de Valence], Earl of Pembroke, was slain at a Tournament on the day of his nuptials. She was the Foundress of Pembroke College or Hall, under the name of Aula Mariae de Valentia. M[ason]."

The Complete Poems of Thomas Gray: English, Latin and Greek. Edited by Herbert W. Starr and J. R. Hendrickson. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1966, 228.

41.3 Chatillon,] "Mary de Valentia, Countess of [...]" R. Lonsdale, 1969.

"Mary de Valentia, Countess of Pembroke, daughter of Guy de Chatillon Comte de St. Paul in France: of whom tradition says, that her husband Audemar de Valentia, Earl of Pembroke, was slain at a Tournament on the day of his nuptials. She was the Foundress of Pembroke College or Hall, under the name of Aula Mariae de Valentia. Mason.
The tradition is hardly supported by the facts. Aymer de Valence, Earl of Pembroke, married Marie de Castillon, daughter of Guy IV, Count de St Pol, in July 1321, and did not die until June 1324, during an embassy to Charles IV at Paris. His wife founded Pembroke Hall in 1343."

The Poems of Thomas Gray, William Collins, Oliver Goldsmith. Edited by Roger Lonsdale. Longman Annotated English Poets Series. London and Harlow: Longmans, 1969, 271.

41.3 Chatillon,] "Mary, Countess of Pembroke and [...]" J. Reeves, 1973.

"Mary, Countess of Pembroke and founder of a college of that name."

The Complete English Poems of Thomas Gray. Edited with an Introduction and Notes by James Reeves. The Poetry Bookshelf series. London: Heinemann; New York: Barnes & Noble, 1973, 118.

41.3 Chatillon,] "Mary de Valentia, daughter of [...]" J. Heath-Stubbs, 1981.

"Mary de Valentia, daughter of Guy de Chatillon, and Countess of Pembroke, founded Pembroke College. Her husband, Audemar de Valentia, Earl of Pembroke, was killed in a tournament on the day of his marriage to her."

Thomas Gray: Selected Poems. Ed. by John Heath-Stubbs. Manchester: Carcanet New Press Ltd., 1981, 80.

Contribute a note or query

42 That wept her bleeding love, and princely Clare, 7 Explanatory

42.8 Clare,] "Elizabeth de Burgh, daughter of [...]" W. Lyon Phelps, 1894.

"Elizabeth de Burgh, daughter of Gilbert de Clare, Earl of Gloucester, by Joan of Acres, daughter of Edward I. She married John de Burgh, son and heir to the Earl of Ulster. She afterwards married Roger Damory. She rebuilt Clare Hall (which had been founded by Dr. Richard Badew in 1326 under the name of University Hall), and gave it this name, about 1342. See Dugdale, Baronage of England, 1675, I, 209, 217."

Selections from the Poetry and Prose of Thomas Gray. Ed. with an introduction and notes by William Lyon Phelps. The Athenaeum press series. Boston: Ginn & company, 1894, 175/176.

42.8 Clare,] "''Elizabeth de Burg, Countess of [...]" J. Bradshaw, 1903 [1st ed. 1891].

"''Elizabeth de Burg, Countess of Clare, was wife of John de Burg, son and heir of the Earl of Ulster, and daughter of Gilbert de Clare, Earl of Gloucester, by Joan of Acres, daughter of Edward the First. Hence the poet gives her the epithet of 'princely.' She founded Clare Hall.'' - Mason."

The Poetical Works of Thomas Gray: English and Latin. Edited with an introduction, life, notes and a bibliography by John Bradshaw. Reprinted edition. The Aldine edition of the British poets series. London: George Bell and sons, 1903 [1st edition 1891], 241.

42.8 Clare,] "Elizabeth de Burg, Countess of [...]" D.C. Tovey, 1922 [1st ed. 1898].

"Elizabeth de Burg, Countess of Clare, was wife of John de Burg, son and heir of the Earl of Ulster, and daughter of Gilbert de Clare, Earl of Gloucester, by Joan of Acres, daughter of Edward the First. Hence the Poet gives her the epithet of 'Princely.' She founded Clare Hall. Mason. Phelps says, ''She rebuilt Clare Hall (which had been founded by Dr Richard Badew in 1326 under the name of University Hall) and gave it this name about 1342. See Dugdale, Baronage of England, 1675, I. 209, 217.'' "

Gray's English Poems, Original and Translated from the Norse and Welsh. Edited by Duncan C. Tovey. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1922 [1st ed. 1898], 286.

42.8 Clare,] "Elizabeth de Burg, Countess of [...]" H.W. Starr/J.R. Hendrickson, 1966.

"Elizabeth de Burg, Countess of Clare, was Wife of John de Burg, son and heir of the Earl of Ulster, and daughter of Gilbert de Clare, Earl of Gloucester, by Joan of Acres, daughter of Edward the First. Hence the Poet gives her the epithet of 'Princely'. She founded [actually rebuilt] Clare Hall. M[ason]."

The Complete Poems of Thomas Gray: English, Latin and Greek. Edited by Herbert W. Starr and J. R. Hendrickson. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1966, 228.

42.8 Clare,] "Elizabeth de Burg, Countess of [...]" R. Lonsdale, 1969.

"Elizabeth de Burg, Countess of Clare, was Wife of John de Burg, son and heir of the Earl of Ulster, and daughter of Gilbert de Clare, Earl of Gloucester, by Joan of Acres, daughter of Edward the First. Hence the Poet gives her the epithet of 'Princely'. She founded Clare Hall. Mason.
Clare Hall had been founded by Dr Richard Badew in 1326 as University Hall, but it was rebuilt and renamed by Elizabeth de Burg in about 1342."

The Poems of Thomas Gray, William Collins, Oliver Goldsmith. Edited by Roger Lonsdale. Longman Annotated English Poets Series. London and Harlow: Longmans, 1969, 271.

42.8 Clare,] "Elizabeth, Countess of Clare, another [...]" J. Reeves, 1973.

"Elizabeth, Countess of Clare, another founder."

The Complete English Poems of Thomas Gray. Edited with an Introduction and Notes by James Reeves. The Poetry Bookshelf series. London: Heinemann; New York: Barnes & Noble, 1973, 118.

42.8 Clare,] "Elizabeth de Burg, Countess of [...]" J. Heath-Stubbs, 1981.

"Elizabeth de Burg, Countess of Clare, whose husband was a grandson of Edward the First, refounded University Hall as Clare Hall in about 1342."

Thomas Gray: Selected Poems. Ed. by John Heath-Stubbs. Manchester: Carcanet New Press Ltd., 1981, 80/81.

Contribute a note or query

43 And Anjou's heroine, and the paler rose, 14 Explanatory

43.2-3 Anjou's heroine,] "Margaret of Anjou, wife of [...]" W. Lyon Phelps, 1894.

"Margaret of Anjou, wife of King Henry VI.; she founded Queen's College in 1448; though the foundation was not completed until 1465, and then, curiously enough, by Elizabeth, wife of Edward IV., Henry's rival. Gray alludes to Margaret in the Bard, v. 89."

Selections from the Poetry and Prose of Thomas Gray. Ed. with an introduction and notes by William Lyon Phelps. The Athenaeum press series. Boston: Ginn & company, 1894, 176.

43.2-3 Anjou's heroine,] "''Margaret of Anjou, wife of [...]" J. Bradshaw, 1903 [1st ed. 1891].

"''Margaret of Anjou, wife of Henry the Sixth, foundress of Queen's College. The poet has celebrated her conjugal fidelity in the former Ode (''The Bard,'' 89).'' - Mason."

The Poetical Works of Thomas Gray: English and Latin. Edited with an introduction, life, notes and a bibliography by John Bradshaw. Reprinted edition. The Aldine edition of the British poets series. London: George Bell and sons, 1903 [1st edition 1891], 241.

43.2-3 Anjou's heroine,] "Margaret of Anjou, wife of [...]" D.C. Tovey, 1922 [1st ed. 1898].

"Margaret of Anjou, wife of Henry the Sixth, foundress of Queens' College. The Poet has celebrated her conjugal fidelity in the Bard, l. 89. Mason."

Gray's English Poems, Original and Translated from the Norse and Welsh. Edited by Duncan C. Tovey. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1922 [1st ed. 1898], 286.

43.2-3 Anjou's heroine,] "Margaret of Anjou [1430?-82], wife [...]" H.W. Starr/J.R. Hendrickson, 1966.

"Margaret of Anjou [1430?-82], wife of Henry the Fifth [Sixth], foundress of Queen's College. The Poet has celebrated her conjugal fidelity in the former Ode: V: Epode 2d, Line 13th [Bard, l. 89]. M[ason]."

The Complete Poems of Thomas Gray: English, Latin and Greek. Edited by Herbert W. Starr and J. R. Hendrickson. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1966, 228.

43.2-3 Anjou's heroine,] "Margaret of Anjou, wife of [...]" R. Lonsdale, 1969.

"Margaret of Anjou, wife of Henry the Fifth, foundress of Queen's College. The Poet has celebrated her conjugal fidelity in the former Ode: V: Epode 2d, Line 13th [i.e. The Bard 89]. Mason.
Margaret of Anjou was actually Queen Consort of Henry VI. She founded Queen's College in 1448."

The Poems of Thomas Gray, William Collins, Oliver Goldsmith. Edited by Roger Lonsdale. Longman Annotated English Poets Series. London and Harlow: Longmans, 1969, 271.

43.2 Anjou's] "Margaret of Anjou, founder of [...]" J. Reeves, 1973.

"Margaret of Anjou, founder of Queen's College."

The Complete English Poems of Thomas Gray. Edited with an Introduction and Notes by James Reeves. The Poetry Bookshelf series. London: Heinemann; New York: Barnes & Noble, 1973, 118.

43.2-7 Anjou's ... rose,] "Margaret of Anjou founded Queen's [...]" J. Heath-Stubbs, 1981.

"Margaret of Anjou founded Queen's College in 1448."

Thomas Gray: Selected Poems. Ed. by John Heath-Stubbs. Manchester: Carcanet New Press Ltd., 1981, 81.

43.6-7 paler rose,] "Elizabeth Woodville; she is called [...]" W. Lyon Phelps, 1894.

"Elizabeth Woodville; she is called the paler rose because her husband, Edward IV., was of the house of York - as distinguished from the red rose, Lancaster."

Selections from the Poetry and Prose of Thomas Gray. Ed. with an introduction and notes by William Lyon Phelps. The Athenaeum press series. Boston: Ginn & company, 1894, 176.

43.6-7 paler rose,] "''Elizabeth Widville, wife of Edward [...]" J. Bradshaw, 1903 [1st ed. 1891].

"''Elizabeth Widville, wife of Edward the Fourth, hence called the paler rose, as being of the House of York. She added to the foundation of Margaret of Anjou.'' - Mason."

The Poetical Works of Thomas Gray: English and Latin. Edited with an introduction, life, notes and a bibliography by John Bradshaw. Reprinted edition. The Aldine edition of the British poets series. London: George Bell and sons, 1903 [1st edition 1891], 241/242.

43.6-7 paler rose,] "Elizabeth Widville [or Woodville] wife [...]" D.C. Tovey, 1922 [1st ed. 1898].

"Elizabeth Widville [or Woodville] wife of Edward the Fourth (hence called the paler rose, as being of the House of York). She added to the foundation of Margaret of Anjou. Mason. See on Bard, l. 92."

Gray's English Poems, Original and Translated from the Norse and Welsh. Edited by Duncan C. Tovey. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1922 [1st ed. 1898], 286.

43.6-7 paler rose,] "Elizabeth Widville [Woodville, c. 1437-92], [...]" H.W. Starr/J.R. Hendrickson, 1966.

"Elizabeth Widville [Woodville, c. 1437-92], wife of Edward the Fourth (hence called the paler rose, as being of the House of York). She added to the foundation of Margaret of Anjou. M[ason]."

The Complete Poems of Thomas Gray: English, Latin and Greek. Edited by Herbert W. Starr and J. R. Hendrickson. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1966, 228.

43.6-7 paler rose,] "Elizabeth Widville, wife of Edward [...]" R. Lonsdale, 1969.

"Elizabeth Widville, wife of Edward the Fourth (hence called the paler rose, as being of the House of York). She added to the foundation of Margaret of Anjou. Mason.
Cp. Shakespeare's reference to the emblem of the House of York as 'this pale and angry rose', I Henry VI II iv 107. Elizabeth Woodville refounded and endowed Queen's College in 1465."

The Poems of Thomas Gray, William Collins, Oliver Goldsmith. Edited by Roger Lonsdale. Longman Annotated English Poets Series. London and Harlow: Longmans, 1969, 271.

43.6-7 paler rose,] "Elizabeth Woodville who had extended [...]" J. Reeves, 1973.

"Elizabeth Woodville who had extended the foundation of Queen's."

The Complete English Poems of Thomas Gray. Edited with an Introduction and Notes by James Reeves. The Poetry Bookshelf series. London: Heinemann; New York: Barnes & Noble, 1973, 118.

43.6-7 paler rose,] "The paler rose was Elizabeth [...]" J. Heath-Stubbs, 1981.

"The paler rose was Elizabeth Woodville, wife of the Yorkist Edward the Fourth. She refounded Queens' College in 1465."

Thomas Gray: Selected Poems. Ed. by John Heath-Stubbs. Manchester: Carcanet New Press Ltd., 1981, 81.

Contribute a note or query

44 The rival of her crown and of her woes, 2 Explanatory

44.1-9 The ... woes,] "Cf. Shakesp. Rich. III. Act [...]" D.C. Tovey, 1922 [1st ed. 1898].

"Cf. Shakesp. Rich. III. Act IV. sc. 4, where Margaret of Anjou and Queen Elizabeth [Woodville] balance their woes, see especially ll. 38-44 where Margaret says to Elizabeth:

''If sorrow can admit society,
Tell o'er your woes again by viewing mine:---
I had an Edward, till a Richard killed him:
I had a Harry, till a Richard kill'd him:
Thou hadst an Edward, till a Richard kill'd him,
Thou hadst a Richard, till a Richard kill'd him.'' "

Gray's English Poems, Original and Translated from the Norse and Welsh. Edited by Duncan C. Tovey. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1922 [1st ed. 1898], 287.

44.1-9 The ... woes,] "Tovey compares Richard III IV [...]" R. Lonsdale, 1969.

"Tovey compares Richard III IV iv, where Margaret of Anjou and Queen Elizabeth balance their 'woes', especially ll. 40-6."

The Poems of Thomas Gray, William Collins, Oliver Goldsmith. Edited by Roger Lonsdale. Longman Annotated English Poets Series. London and Harlow: Longmans, 1969, 271.

Contribute a note or query

45 And either Henry there, 8 Explanatory

45.2-3 either Henry] "Henry VI. and Henry VIII. [...]" W. Lyon Phelps, 1894.

"Henry VI. and Henry VIII. Henry VI. founded King's College in 1441, and Henry VIII. was Trinity's greatest benefactor; Henry VI. is also said to have trebled the revenue of Pembroke Hall."

Selections from the Poetry and Prose of Thomas Gray. Ed. with an introduction and notes by William Lyon Phelps. The Athenaeum press series. Boston: Ginn & company, 1894, 176.

45.2-3 either Henry] "''Henry the Sixth and Eighth. [...]" J. Bradshaw, 1903 [1st ed. 1891].

"''Henry the Sixth and Eighth. The former the founder of King's, the latter the greatest benefactor to Trinity College.'' - Mason."

The Poetical Works of Thomas Gray: English and Latin. Edited with an introduction, life, notes and a bibliography by John Bradshaw. Reprinted edition. The Aldine edition of the British poets series. London: George Bell and sons, 1903 [1st edition 1891], 242.

45.2 either] "either is properly one of [...]" J. Bradshaw, 1903 [1st ed. 1891].

"either is properly one of two; but in old writers and in poetry is used for each of two: - ''In either hand the hastening angel caught / Our lingering parents.'' - Par. Lost, xii. 637."

The Poetical Works of Thomas Gray: English and Latin. Edited with an introduction, life, notes and a bibliography by John Bradshaw. Reprinted edition. The Aldine edition of the British poets series. London: George Bell and sons, 1903 [1st edition 1891], 242.

45.2-3 either Henry] "Henry the Sixth and Eighth. [...]" D.C. Tovey, 1922 [1st ed. 1898].

"Henry the Sixth and Eighth. The former the founder of King's, the latter the greatest benefactor to Trinity College. Mason.
Add. ''King Henry VI. was so liberal a benefactor to Pembroke College, as to obtain the name of a second Founder.'' Cambridge Calendar."

Gray's English Poems, Original and Translated from the Norse and Welsh. Edited by Duncan C. Tovey. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1922 [1st ed. 1898], 287.

45.2-3 either Henry] "Henry the Sixth [1421-71] and [...]" H.W. Starr/J.R. Hendrickson, 1966.

"Henry the Sixth [1421-71] and Eighth [1491-1547]. The former the founder of King's, the latter the greatest benefactor to Trinity College. M[ason]."

The Complete Poems of Thomas Gray: English, Latin and Greek. Edited by Herbert W. Starr and J. R. Hendrickson. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1966, 228.

45.2-3 either Henry] "Henry the Sixth and Eighth. [...]" R. Lonsdale, 1969.

"Henry the Sixth and Eighth. The former the founder of King's [1441], the latter the greatest benefactor to Trinity College. Mason."

The Poems of Thomas Gray, William Collins, Oliver Goldsmith. Edited by Roger Lonsdale. Longman Annotated English Poets Series. London and Harlow: Longmans, 1969, 271.

45.2-3 either Henry] "References to Henry VI and [...]" J. Reeves, 1973.

"References to Henry VI and Henry VIII, one the founder of King's, the other the greatest benefactor of King's."

The Complete English Poems of Thomas Gray. Edited with an Introduction and Notes by James Reeves. The Poetry Bookshelf series. London: Heinemann; New York: Barnes & Noble, 1973, 118.

45.2 - 46.7 either ... lord,] "Henry the Sixth and Henry [...]" J. Heath-Stubbs, 1981.

"Henry the Sixth and Henry the Eighth. The former founded King's College, and the latter was a great benefactor to Trinity College."

Thomas Gray: Selected Poems. Ed. by John Heath-Stubbs. Manchester: Carcanet New Press Ltd., 1981, 81.

Contribute a note or query

46 The murthered saint and the majestic lord, 7 Explanatory

45.2 - 46.7 either ... lord,] "Henry the Sixth and Henry [...]" J. Heath-Stubbs, 1981.

"Henry the Sixth and Henry the Eighth. The former founded King's College, and the latter was a great benefactor to Trinity College."

Thomas Gray: Selected Poems. Ed. by John Heath-Stubbs. Manchester: Carcanet New Press Ltd., 1981, 81.

46.3 saint] "Cf. Eton Ode, l. 4; [...]" D.C. Tovey, 1922 [1st ed. 1898].

"Cf. Eton Ode, l. 4; Bard, l. 90."

Gray's English Poems, Original and Translated from the Norse and Welsh. Edited by Duncan C. Tovey. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1922 [1st ed. 1898], 287.

46.3 saint] "See Eton ode, l. 4, [...]" H.W. Starr/J.R. Hendrickson, 1966.

"See Eton ode, l. 4, and Bard, l. 90."

The Complete Poems of Thomas Gray: English, Latin and Greek. Edited by Herbert W. Starr and J. R. Hendrickson. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1966, 228.

46.3 saint] "For G[ray].'s other references to [...]" R. Lonsdale, 1969.

"For G[ray].'s other references to Henry VI, see Eton Ode 4 (p. 57); and Bard 90 (p. 194)."

The Poems of Thomas Gray, William Collins, Oliver Goldsmith. Edited by Roger Lonsdale. Longman Annotated English Poets Series. London and Harlow: Longmans, 1969, 271.

46.3 saint] "Henry VI." J. Reeves, 1973.

"Henry VI."

The Complete English Poems of Thomas Gray. Edited with an Introduction and Notes by James Reeves. The Poetry Bookshelf series. London: Heinemann; New York: Barnes & Noble, 1973, 118.

46.6-7 majestic lord,] " ''I do not think [...]" D.C. Tovey, 1922 [1st ed. 1898].

" ''I do not think it would be possible for bluff King Hal to be more happily characterised by any one who wished to make rather a complimentary mention of him, without any sacrifice of truth.'' Earl of Carlisle."

Gray's English Poems, Original and Translated from the Norse and Welsh. Edited by Duncan C. Tovey. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1922 [1st ed. 1898], 287.

46.6-7 majestic lord,] "Henry VIII." J. Reeves, 1973.

"Henry VIII."

The Complete English Poems of Thomas Gray. Edited with an Introduction and Notes by James Reeves. The Poetry Bookshelf series. London: Heinemann; New York: Barnes & Noble, 1973, 118.

Contribute a note or query

47 That broke the bonds of Rome,
48 (Their tears, their little triumphs o'er, (accomp.) 3 Explanatory

48.1-7 (Their ... (accomp.)] "See note to l. 18." H.W. Starr/J.R. Hendrickson, 1966.

"See note to l. 18."

The Complete Poems of Thomas Gray: English, Latin and Greek. Edited by Herbert W. Starr and J. R. Hendrickson. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1966, 228.

48.4 little] "because insignificant to them in [...]" D.C. Tovey, 1922 [1st ed. 1898].

"because insignificant to them in their present state."

Gray's English Poems, Original and Translated from the Norse and Welsh. Edited by Duncan C. Tovey. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1922 [1st ed. 1898], 287.

48.7 (accomp.)] "This meant that, though the [...]" W. Lyon Phelps, 1894.

"This meant that, though the recitative was held, the next nine lines were also accompanied."

Selections from the Poetry and Prose of Thomas Gray. Ed. with an introduction and notes by William Lyon Phelps. The Athenaeum press series. Boston: Ginn & company, 1894, 175.

Contribute a note or query

49 Their human passions now no more,
50 Save charity, that glows beyond the tomb).
51 All that on Granta's fruitful plain 3 Explanatory

51.4 Granta's] "The river Cam." W. Lyon Phelps, 1894.

"The river Cam."

Selections from the Poetry and Prose of Thomas Gray. Ed. with an introduction and notes by William Lyon Phelps. The Athenaeum press series. Boston: Ginn & company, 1894, 176.

51.4 Granta's] "A name for the River [...]" H.W. Starr/J.R. Hendrickson, 1966.

"A name for the River Cam, especially the upper portion."

The Complete Poems of Thomas Gray: English, Latin and Greek. Edited by Herbert W. Starr and J. R. Hendrickson. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1966, 228.

51.4 Granta's] "a Cambridge river." J. Reeves, 1973.

"a Cambridge river."

The Complete English Poems of Thomas Gray. Edited with an Introduction and Notes by James Reeves. The Poetry Bookshelf series. London: Heinemann; New York: Barnes & Noble, 1973, 118.

Contribute a note or query

52 Rich streams of regal bounty poured,
53 And bade these awful fanes and turrets rise, 1 Explanatory

53.4 awful] "stately, venerable." D.C. Tovey, 1922 [1st ed. 1898].

"stately, venerable."

Gray's English Poems, Original and Translated from the Norse and Welsh. Edited by Duncan C. Tovey. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1922 [1st ed. 1898], 287.

Contribute a note or query

54 To hail their Fitzroy's festal morning come; 5 Explanatory

54.4 Fitzroy's] "The family name of the [...]" W. Lyon Phelps, 1894.

"The family name of the Duke of Grafton."

Selections from the Poetry and Prose of Thomas Gray. Ed. with an introduction and notes by William Lyon Phelps. The Athenaeum press series. Boston: Ginn & company, 1894, 176.

54.4 Fitzroy's] "Grafton, so named because of [...]" H.W. Starr/J.R. Hendrickson, 1966.

"Grafton, so named because of his illegitimate descent - see note to l. 70."

The Complete Poems of Thomas Gray: English, Latin and Greek. Edited by Herbert W. Starr and J. R. Hendrickson. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1966, 228.

54.4 Fitzroy's] "Augustus Henry Fitzroy, Duke of [...]" R. Lonsdale, 1969.

"Augustus Henry Fitzroy, Duke of Grafton."

The Poems of Thomas Gray, William Collins, Oliver Goldsmith. Edited by Roger Lonsdale. Longman Annotated English Poets Series. London and Harlow: Longmans, 1969, 272.

54.4 Fitzroy's] "Grafton himself." J. Reeves, 1973.

"Grafton himself."

The Complete English Poems of Thomas Gray. Edited with an Introduction and Notes by James Reeves. The Poetry Bookshelf series. London: Heinemann; New York: Barnes & Noble, 1973, 118.

54.7 come;] "'come' is here present indicative, [...]" D.C. Tovey, 1922 [1st ed. 1898].

"'come' is here present indicative, not the past participle."

Gray's English Poems, Original and Translated from the Norse and Welsh. Edited by Duncan C. Tovey. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1922 [1st ed. 1898], 287.

Contribute a note or query

55 And thus they speak in soft accord
56 The liquid language of the skies. 1 Explanatory

56.1-6 The ... skies.] "Cp. liquidas avium voces (the [...]" R. Lonsdale, 1969.

"Cp. liquidas avium voces (the liquid notes of the birds), Lucretius v 1379; 'the language of the sky', Dryden, Hind and [the] Panther iii 821."

The Poems of Thomas Gray, William Collins, Oliver Goldsmith. Edited by Roger Lonsdale. Longman Annotated English Poets Series. London and Harlow: Longmans, 1969, 272.

Contribute a note or query


Quartetto

57 'What is grandeur, what is power? 1 Explanatory

57.1 - 58.4 'What ... pain.] "William Broome, Epistle to Fenton [...]" R. Lonsdale, 1969.

"William Broome, Epistle to Fenton 103-4: 'None are completely wretched but the great, / Superior woes, superior stations bring.'"

The Poems of Thomas Gray, William Collins, Oliver Goldsmith. Edited by Roger Lonsdale. Longman Annotated English Poets Series. London and Harlow: Longmans, 1969, 272.

Contribute a note or query

58 'Heavier toil, superior pain. 1 Explanatory

57.1 - 58.4 'What ... pain.] "William Broome, Epistle to Fenton [...]" R. Lonsdale, 1969.

"William Broome, Epistle to Fenton 103-4: 'None are completely wretched but the great, / Superior woes, superior stations bring.'"

The Poems of Thomas Gray, William Collins, Oliver Goldsmith. Edited by Roger Lonsdale. Longman Annotated English Poets Series. London and Harlow: Longmans, 1969, 272.

Contribute a note or query

59 'What the bright reward we gain?
60 'The grateful memory of the good.
61 'Sweet is the breath of vernal shower, 3 Explanatory

61.1 - 64.6 'Sweet ... gratitude.'] "These lines may be based [...]" J. Bradshaw, 1903 [1st ed. 1891].

"These lines may be based on that well-known passage in ''Paradise Lost,'' in which Eve says to Adam: -

''Sweet is the breath of Morn, her rising sweet;
. . . fragrant the fertile earth
After soft showers; and sweet the coming on
Of grateful evening mild. . . . .
But neither breath of Morn,
. . . . without thee is sweet.'' - iv. 641-656.
Another passage recalled by both is Byron's
'' 'Tis sweet to see the evening star appear . . . .
'Tis sweet to know there is an eye will mark
Our coming, and look brighter when we come.'' - Don Juan."

The Poetical Works of Thomas Gray: English and Latin. Edited with an introduction, life, notes and a bibliography by John Bradshaw. Reprinted edition. The Aldine edition of the British poets series. London: George Bell and sons, 1903 [1st edition 1891], 242.

61.1 - 64.6 'Sweet ... gratitude.'] "Par. Lost, IV. 641-646: ''Sweet [...]" D.C. Tovey, 1922 [1st ed. 1898].

"Par. Lost, IV. 641-646:

''Sweet is the breath of Morn, her rising sweet
        ... fragrant the fertile earth
After soft showers.''   (Wakefield.)"

Gray's English Poems, Original and Translated from the Norse and Welsh. Edited by Duncan C. Tovey. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1922 [1st ed. 1898], 287.

61.1-7 'Sweet ... shower,] "Milton, Epitaph on Marchioness of [...]" R. Lonsdale, 1969.

"Milton, Epitaph on Marchioness of Winchester 40: 'New shot up from vernall showr'; and Par. Lost iv 641, 645-6: 'Sweet is the breath of morn, her rising sweet / ... / ... fragrant the fertil earth / After soft showers.' Cp. also 'A soft Retreat from sudden vernal Show'rs', Pope, Spring 98."

The Poems of Thomas Gray, William Collins, Oliver Goldsmith. Edited by Roger Lonsdale. Longman Annotated English Poets Series. London and Harlow: Longmans, 1969, 272.

Contribute a note or query

62 'The bee's collected treasures sweet, 3 Explanatory

61.1 - 64.6 'Sweet ... gratitude.'] "These lines may be based [...]" J. Bradshaw, 1903 [1st ed. 1891].

"These lines may be based on that well-known passage in ''Paradise Lost,'' in which Eve says to Adam: -

''Sweet is the breath of Morn, her rising sweet;
. . . fragrant the fertile earth
After soft showers; and sweet the coming on
Of grateful evening mild. . . . .
But neither breath of Morn,
. . . . without thee is sweet.'' - iv. 641-656.
Another passage recalled by both is Byron's
'' 'Tis sweet to see the evening star appear . . . .
'Tis sweet to know there is an eye will mark
Our coming, and look brighter when we come.'' - Don Juan."

The Poetical Works of Thomas Gray: English and Latin. Edited with an introduction, life, notes and a bibliography by John Bradshaw. Reprinted edition. The Aldine edition of the British poets series. London: George Bell and sons, 1903 [1st edition 1891], 242.

61.1 - 64.6 'Sweet ... gratitude.'] "Par. Lost, IV. 641-646: ''Sweet [...]" D.C. Tovey, 1922 [1st ed. 1898].

"Par. Lost, IV. 641-646:

''Sweet is the breath of Morn, her rising sweet
        ... fragrant the fertile earth
After soft showers.''   (Wakefield.)"

Gray's English Poems, Original and Translated from the Norse and Welsh. Edited by Duncan C. Tovey. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1922 [1st ed. 1898], 287.

62.1-5 'The ... sweet,] "Cf. Descent of Odin, l. [...]" D.C. Tovey, 1922 [1st ed. 1898].

"Cf. Descent of Odin, l. 44; Death of Hoel, l. 17; in both places used however of mead. Mitford compares Theocritus, VIII. 83, [Greek line (omitted)] [Better is it to listen to thy singing, than to taste the honeycomb. Lang.]"

Gray's English Poems, Original and Translated from the Norse and Welsh. Edited by Duncan C. Tovey. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1922 [1st ed. 1898], 287.

Contribute a note or query

63 'Sweet music's melting fall, but sweeter yet 4 Explanatory

61.1 - 64.6 'Sweet ... gratitude.'] "These lines may be based [...]" J. Bradshaw, 1903 [1st ed. 1891].

"These lines may be based on that well-known passage in ''Paradise Lost,'' in which Eve says to Adam: -

''Sweet is the breath of Morn, her rising sweet;
. . . fragrant the fertile earth
After soft showers; and sweet the coming on
Of grateful evening mild. . . . .
But neither breath of Morn,
. . . . without thee is sweet.'' - iv. 641-656.
Another passage recalled by both is Byron's
'' 'Tis sweet to see the evening star appear . . . .
'Tis sweet to know there is an eye will mark
Our coming, and look brighter when we come.'' - Don Juan."

The Poetical Works of Thomas Gray: English and Latin. Edited with an introduction, life, notes and a bibliography by John Bradshaw. Reprinted edition. The Aldine edition of the British poets series. London: George Bell and sons, 1903 [1st edition 1891], 242.

61.1 - 64.6 'Sweet ... gratitude.'] "Par. Lost, IV. 641-646: ''Sweet [...]" D.C. Tovey, 1922 [1st ed. 1898].

"Par. Lost, IV. 641-646:

''Sweet is the breath of Morn, her rising sweet
        ... fragrant the fertile earth
After soft showers.''   (Wakefield.)"

Gray's English Poems, Original and Translated from the Norse and Welsh. Edited by Duncan C. Tovey. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1922 [1st ed. 1898], 287.

63.3-4 melting fall,] "Shakespeare, Twelfth Night, I. 1. [...]" D.C. Tovey, 1922 [1st ed. 1898].

"Shakespeare, Twelfth Night, I. 1. 4: ''That strain again! it had a dying fall:'' Milton, L'Allegro, 142: ''The melting voice through mazes running;'' and Comus, l. 251: ''At every fall smoothing the raven down / Of darkness till it smil'd.'' "

Gray's English Poems, Original and Translated from the Norse and Welsh. Edited by Duncan C. Tovey. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1922 [1st ed. 1898], 287.

63.3-4 melting fall,] "'That strain again! it had [...]" R. Lonsdale, 1969.

"'That strain again! it had a dying fall', Twelfth Night I i 4; 'While melting Musick steals upon the Sky', Pope, Rape of the Lock ii 49; and 'And melt away / In a dying, dying Fall', Ode on St. Cecilia's Day 20-1."

The Poems of Thomas Gray, William Collins, Oliver Goldsmith. Edited by Roger Lonsdale. Longman Annotated English Poets Series. London and Harlow: Longmans, 1969, 272.

Contribute a note or query

64 'The still small voice of gratitude.' 4 Explanatory

61.1 - 64.6 'Sweet ... gratitude.'] "These lines may be based [...]" J. Bradshaw, 1903 [1st ed. 1891].

"These lines may be based on that well-known passage in ''Paradise Lost,'' in which Eve says to Adam: -

''Sweet is the breath of Morn, her rising sweet;
. . . fragrant the fertile earth
After soft showers; and sweet the coming on
Of grateful evening mild. . . . .
But neither breath of Morn,
. . . . without thee is sweet.'' - iv. 641-656.
Another passage recalled by both is Byron's
'' 'Tis sweet to see the evening star appear . . . .
'Tis sweet to know there is an eye will mark
Our coming, and look brighter when we come.'' - Don Juan."

The Poetical Works of Thomas Gray: English and Latin. Edited with an introduction, life, notes and a bibliography by John Bradshaw. Reprinted edition. The Aldine edition of the British poets series. London: George Bell and sons, 1903 [1st edition 1891], 242.

61.1 - 64.6 'Sweet ... gratitude.'] "Par. Lost, IV. 641-646: ''Sweet [...]" D.C. Tovey, 1922 [1st ed. 1898].

"Par. Lost, IV. 641-646:

''Sweet is the breath of Morn, her rising sweet
        ... fragrant the fertile earth
After soft showers.''   (Wakefield.)"

Gray's English Poems, Original and Translated from the Norse and Welsh. Edited by Duncan C. Tovey. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1922 [1st ed. 1898], 287.

64.1-6 'The ... gratitude.'] "1 Kings xix. 12, ''and [...]" D.C. Tovey, 1922 [1st ed. 1898].

"1 Kings xix. 12, ''and after the fire a still small voice.'' Cf. the third of rejected stanzas in the Elegy quoted in note after l. 72 there. The hint for lines on Gratitude in Gray's Pocket Book for 1754, quoted on the Vicissitude Fragment (Introductory note) is more or less adopted here. But West, whom Gray never forgot, had in his Monody on the Death of Queen Caroline (given in Gray and His Friends, pp. 100-114) personified Gratitude much in the same way, describing her however as 'descending from the skies.' "

Gray's English Poems, Original and Translated from the Norse and Welsh. Edited by Duncan C. Tovey. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1922 [1st ed. 1898], 287/288.

64.1-6 'The ... gratitude.'] "'and after the fire a [...]" R. Lonsdale, 1969.

"'and after the fire a still small voice', I Kings xix 12; 'now in a still small tone / Your dying accents fell', Dryden, Oedipus II i; 'The world can't hear the small still voice', Matthew Green, On Barclay's Apology for the Quakers 29. Cf. also the lines omitted from the Elegy: 'In still small Accents whisp'ring from the Ground' etc. (see p. 131)."

The Poems of Thomas Gray, William Collins, Oliver Goldsmith. Edited by Roger Lonsdale. Longman Annotated English Poets Series. London and Harlow: Longmans, 1969, 272.

Contribute a note or query


Recitative

65 Foremost and leaning from her golden cloud 3 Explanatory

65.5-7 her ... cloud] "her abode in heaven; so [...]" J. Bradshaw, 1903 [1st ed. 1891].

"her abode in heaven; so in ''Paradise Lost,'' vi. 28: - ''from whence a voice, / From midst a golden cloud, thus mild was heard.''"

The Poetical Works of Thomas Gray: English and Latin. Edited with an introduction, life, notes and a bibliography by John Bradshaw. Reprinted edition. The Aldine edition of the British poets series. London: George Bell and sons, 1903 [1st edition 1891], 242.

65.6-7 golden cloud] "''... a voice from midst [...]" D.C. Tovey, 1922 [1st ed. 1898].

"''... a voice from midst a golden cloud / Thus mild was heard.'' Par. Lost, VI. 28.   Luke."

Gray's English Poems, Original and Translated from the Norse and Welsh. Edited by Duncan C. Tovey. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1922 [1st ed. 1898], 288.

65.6-7 golden cloud] "'from whence a voice / [...]" R. Lonsdale, 1969.

"'from whence a voice / From midst a Golden Cloud thus milde was heard', Par. Lost vi 27-8."

The Poems of Thomas Gray, William Collins, Oliver Goldsmith. Edited by Roger Lonsdale. Longman Annotated English Poets Series. London and Harlow: Longmans, 1969, 272.

Contribute a note or query

66 The venerable Margaret see! 7 Explanatory

66.1-4 The ... see!] "The Lady Margaret Beaufort, daughter [...]" W. Lyon Phelps, 1894.

"The Lady Margaret Beaufort, daughter of John, Duke of Somerset, married, 1454, Edmund Tudor, Earl of Richmond. Their son succeeded to the throne as Henry VII. See Doyle, Official Baronage, III, 118. ''Although Christ's College was originally founded in the reign of King Henry VI. by the name of God's House, yet its foundation is usually dated from its second and more ample establishment, by Margaret Countess of Richmond, in 1505.'' Lysons, Magna Britannia, I, 120. ''The foundation of St. John's College was projected and begun by Margaret Countess of Richmond a short time before her death, which happened in 1509.'' Ibid., I, 121."

Selections from the Poetry and Prose of Thomas Gray. Ed. with an introduction and notes by William Lyon Phelps. The Athenaeum press series. Boston: Ginn & company, 1894, 176.

66.3 Margaret] "''Countess of Richmond and Derby; [...]" J. Bradshaw, 1903 [1st ed. 1891].

"''Countess of Richmond and Derby; the mother of Henry the Seventh, foundress of St. John's and Christ's Colleges.'' - Mason."

The Poetical Works of Thomas Gray: English and Latin. Edited with an introduction, life, notes and a bibliography by John Bradshaw. Reprinted edition. The Aldine edition of the British poets series. London: George Bell and sons, 1903 [1st edition 1891], 242.

66.3 Margaret] "Countess of Richmond and Derby, [...]" D.C. Tovey, 1922 [1st ed. 1898].

"Countess of Richmond and Derby, the mother of Henry the Seventh, foundress of St John's and Christ's Colleges. [Mason]
''Although Christ's College was originally founded in the reign of King Henry VI. by the name of God's House, yet its foundation is usually dated from its second and more ample establishment, by Margaret Countess of Richmond, in 1505.'' Lysons, Magna Britannia, I. 120. ''The foundation of St John's College was projected and begun by Margaret Countess of Richmond a short time before her death, which happened in 1509.'' Ibid., I. 121.   (Phelps.)"

Gray's English Poems, Original and Translated from the Norse and Welsh. Edited by Duncan C. Tovey. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1922 [1st ed. 1898], 288.

66.3 Margaret] "Countess of Richmond and Derby; [...]" H.W. Starr/J.R. Hendrickson, 1966.

"Countess of Richmond and Derby; the Mother of Henry the Seventh, foundress of St. John's and Christ's Colleges. M[ason]."

The Complete Poems of Thomas Gray: English, Latin and Greek. Edited by Herbert W. Starr and J. R. Hendrickson. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1966, 228.

66.3 Margaret] "Countess of Richmond and Derby; [...]" R. Lonsdale, 1969.

"Countess of Richmond and Derby; the Mother of Henry the Seventh, foundress of St John's [1508] and Christ's [1505] Colleges. Mason."

The Poems of Thomas Gray, William Collins, Oliver Goldsmith. Edited by Roger Lonsdale. Longman Annotated English Poets Series. London and Harlow: Longmans, 1969, 272.

66.3 Margaret] "Countess of Richmond and Derby [...]" J. Reeves, 1973.

"Countess of Richmond and Derby and founder of John's and Christ's Colleges."

The Complete English Poems of Thomas Gray. Edited with an Introduction and Notes by James Reeves. The Poetry Bookshelf series. London: Heinemann; New York: Barnes & Noble, 1973, 118.

66.3 Margaret] "Lady Margaret Beaufort, mother of [...]" J. Heath-Stubbs, 1981.

"Lady Margaret Beaufort, mother of Henry the Seventh. She founded Christ's in 1505 and St. John's in 1508. The Duke of Grafton was descended from Henry Fitzroy, illegitimate son of Charles the Second, and thus through Margaret Tudor, sister of Henry the Eighth and wife of James the Fourth of Scotland, from the Tudors and the Beauforts."

Thomas Gray: Selected Poems. Ed. by John Heath-Stubbs. Manchester: Carcanet New Press Ltd., 1981, 81.

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67 'Welcome, my noble son,' (she cries aloud)
68 'To this, thy kindred train, and me:
69 'Pleased in thy lineaments we trace 2 Explanatory

69.1 - 70.6 'Pleased ... grace.] "In the volume in the [...]" J. Bradshaw, 1903 [1st ed. 1891].

"In the volume in the British Museum (No. 840, l. 5) which contains Gray's ''Odes,'' Ed. 1757, there is, in neat handwriting on a fly-leaf at the end, the following genealogical tree drawn out to illustrate the lines,

''Pleased in thy lineaments we trace
A Tudor's fire, a Beaufort's grace.''
John Beaufort, Duke of Somerset,
Grandson to John of Gaunt.
|
Edmund
Tudor,
Earl of Richmond.
---''The venerable
Margaret,''
who founded Christ's College, St.
John's, etc.
|
|---|
Henry VII.Margaret Tudor,
wife of James IV. of Scotland.
|
James V. of Scotland.
|
Mary, Queen of Scots.
|
James VI. of Scotland,
and I. of Gt. Britain.
|
Charles I.
|
Charles II.
|
Henry Fitzroy, 1st Duke of Grafton,
born 1663, died 1690.
|
Charles Fitzroy, 2nd Duke of Grafton,
born 1683, died 1757.
|
|---|
George, Earl of Euston
died 1747.
Ld. Augustus Fitzroy,
died 1741.
|
Augustus Henry Fitzroy, 3rd Duke of
Grafton, born 1735, installed Chancellor
of Cambridge, July 1, 1769."

The Poetical Works of Thomas Gray: English and Latin. Edited with an introduction, life, notes and a bibliography by John Bradshaw. Reprinted edition. The Aldine edition of the British poets series. London: George Bell and sons, 1903 [1st edition 1891], 243.

69.1-6 'Pleased ... trace] "'The old lineaments of his [...]" R. Lonsdale, 1969.

"'The old lineaments of his fathers grace', Spenser, Shepheardes Calender, 'May' 212 (quoted by G[ray]. in his 'Observations on English Metre', ed. Gosse, i 340); 'What Lineaments divine we trace', Swift, On Poetry: A Rhapsody 417; 'Nor hope the British lineaments to trace', Johnson, London 101."

The Poems of Thomas Gray, William Collins, Oliver Goldsmith. Edited by Roger Lonsdale. Longman Annotated English Poets Series. London and Harlow: Longmans, 1969, 272/273.

Contribute a note or query

70 'A Tudor's fire, a Beaufort's grace. 7 Explanatory

69.1 - 70.6 'Pleased ... grace.] "In the volume in the [...]" J. Bradshaw, 1903 [1st ed. 1891].

"In the volume in the British Museum (No. 840, l. 5) which contains Gray's ''Odes,'' Ed. 1757, there is, in neat handwriting on a fly-leaf at the end, the following genealogical tree drawn out to illustrate the lines,

''Pleased in thy lineaments we trace
A Tudor's fire, a Beaufort's grace.''
John Beaufort, Duke of Somerset,
Grandson to John of Gaunt.
|
Edmund
Tudor,
Earl of Richmond.
---''The venerable
Margaret,''
who founded Christ's College, St.
John's, etc.
|
|---|
Henry VII.Margaret Tudor,
wife of James IV. of Scotland.
|
James V. of Scotland.
|
Mary, Queen of Scots.
|
James VI. of Scotland,
and I. of Gt. Britain.
|
Charles I.
|
Charles II.
|
Henry Fitzroy, 1st Duke of Grafton,
born 1663, died 1690.
|
Charles Fitzroy, 2nd Duke of Grafton,
born 1683, died 1757.
|
|---|
George, Earl of Euston
died 1747.
Ld. Augustus Fitzroy,
died 1741.
|
Augustus Henry Fitzroy, 3rd Duke of
Grafton, born 1735, installed Chancellor
of Cambridge, July 1, 1769."

The Poetical Works of Thomas Gray: English and Latin. Edited with an introduction, life, notes and a bibliography by John Bradshaw. Reprinted edition. The Aldine edition of the British poets series. London: George Bell and sons, 1903 [1st edition 1891], 243.

70.1-6 'A ... grace.] "''The Countess was a Beaufort, [...]" W. Lyon Phelps, 1894.

"''The Countess was a Beaufort, and married to a Tudor; hence the application of this line to the Duke of Grafton, who claims descent from both these families.'' - Mason."

Selections from the Poetry and Prose of Thomas Gray. Ed. with an introduction and notes by William Lyon Phelps. The Athenaeum press series. Boston: Ginn & company, 1894, 176.

70.1-6 'A ... grace.] "''The Countess was a Beaufort, [...]" J. Bradshaw, 1903 [1st ed. 1891].

"''The Countess was a Beaufort, and married to a Tudor; hence the application of this line to the Duke of Grafton, who claims descent from both these families.'' - Mason."

The Poetical Works of Thomas Gray: English and Latin. Edited with an introduction, life, notes and a bibliography by John Bradshaw. Reprinted edition. The Aldine edition of the British poets series. London: George Bell and sons, 1903 [1st edition 1891], 242.

70.1-6 'A ... grace.] "The Countess was a Beaufort, [...]" D.C. Tovey, 1922 [1st ed. 1898].

"The Countess was a Beaufort, and married to a Tudor: hence the application of this line to the Duke of Grafton, who claims descent from both these families.   Mason.
The pedigree is traced through Charles II., of whom the first Fitzroy, Duke of Grafton, was an illegitimate son. Cf. note on the Bard, l. 116."

Gray's English Poems, Original and Translated from the Norse and Welsh. Edited by Duncan C. Tovey. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1922 [1st ed. 1898], 288.

70.1-6 'A ... grace.] "The Countess was a Beaufort, [...]" H.W. Starr/J.R. Hendrickson, 1966.

"The Countess was a Beaufort, and married to a Tudor: hence the application of this line to the Duke of Grafton, who claims descent from both these families [by way of an illegitimate child of Charles II]. M[ason]."

The Complete Poems of Thomas Gray: English, Latin and Greek. Edited by Herbert W. Starr and J. R. Hendrickson. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1966, 228.

70.1-6 'A ... grace.] "The Countess was a Beaufort, [...]" R. Lonsdale, 1969.

"The Countess was a Beaufort, and married to a Tudor [Edmund, Earl of Richmond]: hence the application of this line to the Duke of Grafton, who claims descent from both these families. Mason.
The pedigree was traced through Henry Fitzroy, First Duke of Grafton, an illegitimate son of Charles II. G.'s compliment contrasts sharply with Junius' comment on the same matter in his letter to Grafton, dated 30 May 1769: 'The character of the reputed ancestors of some men has made it possible for their descendants to be vicious in the extreme without being degenerate. Those of your Grace, for instance, left no distressing examples of virtue even to their legitimate posterity, and you may look back with pleasure to an illustrious pedigree in which heraldry has not left a single good quality upon record to insult or upbraid you. You have better proofs of your descent, my Lord, than the register of a marriage, or any troublesome inheritance of reputation.'"

The Poems of Thomas Gray, William Collins, Oliver Goldsmith. Edited by Roger Lonsdale. Longman Annotated English Poets Series. London and Harlow: Longmans, 1969, 273.

70.1-6 'A ... grace.] "Grafton claimed descent from both [...]" J. Reeves, 1973.

"Grafton claimed descent from both these families."

The Complete English Poems of Thomas Gray. Edited with an Introduction and Notes by James Reeves. The Poetry Bookshelf series. London: Heinemann; New York: Barnes & Noble, 1973, 118.

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Air

71 'Thy liberal heart, thy judging eye, 2 Explanatory

71.5-6 judging eye,] "Mitford compares Pope, who, Prologue [...]" D.C. Tovey, 1922 [1st ed. 1898].

"Mitford compares Pope, who, Prologue to the Satires (Ep. to Arbuthnot), l. 246, says bitterly of 'full-blown Bufo' (Montague): ''Dryden alone escaped this judging eye.''"

Gray's English Poems, Original and Translated from the Norse and Welsh. Edited by Duncan C. Tovey. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1922 [1st ed. 1898], 288.

71.5-6 judging eye,] "'A Face untaught to feign! [...]" R. Lonsdale, 1969.

"'A Face untaught to feign! a judging Eye', Pope, Epistle to Craggs 5; and 'Dryden alone escap'd this judging eye', Epistle to Arbuthnot 246."

The Poems of Thomas Gray, William Collins, Oliver Goldsmith. Edited by Roger Lonsdale. Longman Annotated English Poets Series. London and Harlow: Longmans, 1969, 273.

Contribute a note or query

72 'The flower unheeded shall descry, 3 Explanatory

72.1-3 'The ... unheeded] "Cf. Elegy, v. 55. Gray [...]" W. Lyon Phelps, 1894.

"Cf. Elegy, v. 55. Gray means here that the Duke will discover obscure men of genius and make their merits known."

Selections from the Poetry and Prose of Thomas Gray. Ed. with an introduction and notes by William Lyon Phelps. The Athenaeum press series. Boston: Ginn & company, 1894, 176.

72.1 - 76.5 'The ... diadem.] "The thought of Elegy, ll. [...]" D.C. Tovey, 1922 [1st ed. 1898].

"The thought of Elegy, ll. 53-56, was in Gray's mind when he wrote thus."

Gray's English Poems, Original and Translated from the Norse and Welsh. Edited by Duncan C. Tovey. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1922 [1st ed. 1898], 288.

72.1 - 76.5 'The ... diadem.] "Cp. Elegy 53-6 (p. 127)." R. Lonsdale, 1969.

"Cp. Elegy 53-6 (p. 127)."

The Poems of Thomas Gray, William Collins, Oliver Goldsmith. Edited by Roger Lonsdale. Longman Annotated English Poets Series. London and Harlow: Longmans, 1969, 273.

Contribute a note or query

73 'And bid it round heaven's altars shed 2 Explanatory

72.1 - 76.5 'The ... diadem.] "The thought of Elegy, ll. [...]" D.C. Tovey, 1922 [1st ed. 1898].

"The thought of Elegy, ll. 53-56, was in Gray's mind when he wrote thus."

Gray's English Poems, Original and Translated from the Norse and Welsh. Edited by Duncan C. Tovey. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1922 [1st ed. 1898], 288.

72.1 - 76.5 'The ... diadem.] "Cp. Elegy 53-6 (p. 127)." R. Lonsdale, 1969.

"Cp. Elegy 53-6 (p. 127)."

The Poems of Thomas Gray, William Collins, Oliver Goldsmith. Edited by Roger Lonsdale. Longman Annotated English Poets Series. London and Harlow: Longmans, 1969, 273.

Contribute a note or query

74 'The fragrance of its blushing head: 2 Explanatory

72.1 - 76.5 'The ... diadem.] "The thought of Elegy, ll. [...]" D.C. Tovey, 1922 [1st ed. 1898].

"The thought of Elegy, ll. 53-56, was in Gray's mind when he wrote thus."

Gray's English Poems, Original and Translated from the Norse and Welsh. Edited by Duncan C. Tovey. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1922 [1st ed. 1898], 288.

72.1 - 76.5 'The ... diadem.] "Cp. Elegy 53-6 (p. 127)." R. Lonsdale, 1969.

"Cp. Elegy 53-6 (p. 127)."

The Poems of Thomas Gray, William Collins, Oliver Goldsmith. Edited by Roger Lonsdale. Longman Annotated English Poets Series. London and Harlow: Longmans, 1969, 273.

Contribute a note or query

75 'Shall raise from earth the latent gem 3 Explanatory

72.1 - 76.5 'The ... diadem.] "The thought of Elegy, ll. [...]" D.C. Tovey, 1922 [1st ed. 1898].

"The thought of Elegy, ll. 53-56, was in Gray's mind when he wrote thus."

Gray's English Poems, Original and Translated from the Norse and Welsh. Edited by Duncan C. Tovey. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1922 [1st ed. 1898], 288.

72.1 - 76.5 'The ... diadem.] "Cp. Elegy 53-6 (p. 127)." R. Lonsdale, 1969.

"Cp. Elegy 53-6 (p. 127)."

The Poems of Thomas Gray, William Collins, Oliver Goldsmith. Edited by Roger Lonsdale. Longman Annotated English Poets Series. London and Harlow: Longmans, 1969, 273.

75.5-7 the ... gem] "the gem that lies hid. [...]" J. Bradshaw, 1903 [1st ed. 1891].

"the gem that lies hid. The stanza means ''Thy discriminating eye will find out men of genius, who would otherwise be unknown, and will raise them to places of honour and usefulness.'' He reproduces his simile of the ''gem and the flower'' from the ''Elegy,'' 53-56."

The Poetical Works of Thomas Gray: English and Latin. Edited with an introduction, life, notes and a bibliography by John Bradshaw. Reprinted edition. The Aldine edition of the British poets series. London: George Bell and sons, 1903 [1st edition 1891], 244.

Contribute a note or query

76 'To glitter on the diadem. 2 Explanatory

72.1 - 76.5 'The ... diadem.] "The thought of Elegy, ll. [...]" D.C. Tovey, 1922 [1st ed. 1898].

"The thought of Elegy, ll. 53-56, was in Gray's mind when he wrote thus."

Gray's English Poems, Original and Translated from the Norse and Welsh. Edited by Duncan C. Tovey. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1922 [1st ed. 1898], 288.

72.1 - 76.5 'The ... diadem.] "Cp. Elegy 53-6 (p. 127)." R. Lonsdale, 1969.

"Cp. Elegy 53-6 (p. 127)."

The Poems of Thomas Gray, William Collins, Oliver Goldsmith. Edited by Roger Lonsdale. Longman Annotated English Poets Series. London and Harlow: Longmans, 1969, 273.

Contribute a note or query


Recitative

77 'Lo, Granta waits to lead her blooming band, 1 Explanatory

77.7 blooming] "i.e. in 'the state of [...]" R. Lonsdale, 1969.

"i.e. in 'the state of anything improving and ripening to higher perfection' (Johnson)."

The Poems of Thomas Gray, William Collins, Oliver Goldsmith. Edited by Roger Lonsdale. Longman Annotated English Poets Series. London and Harlow: Longmans, 1969, 273.

Contribute a note or query

78 'Not obvious, not obtrusive, she 4 Explanatory

78.1-5 'Not ... she] "In the literal Latin sense. [...]" W. Lyon Phelps, 1894.

"In the literal Latin sense. Cf. Par. Lost, viii, 504: ''Not obvious, not obtrusive.''"

Selections from the Poetry and Prose of Thomas Gray. Ed. with an introduction and notes by William Lyon Phelps. The Athenaeum press series. Boston: Ginn & company, 1894, 176.

78.1-5 'Not ... she] "This line is taken from [...]" J. Bradshaw, 1903 [1st ed. 1891].

"This line is taken from Adam's description of Eve (''Paradise Lost,'' viii. 504): - ''Not obvious, not obtrusive, but retired.''"

The Poetical Works of Thomas Gray: English and Latin. Edited with an introduction, life, notes and a bibliography by John Bradshaw. Reprinted edition. The Aldine edition of the British poets series. London: George Bell and sons, 1903 [1st edition 1891], 244.

78.1-5 'Not ... she] "Taken from Par. Lost, VIII. [...]" D.C. Tovey, 1922 [1st ed. 1898].

"Taken from Par. Lost, VIII. 504 - the description of Eve on her creation and first appearance to Adam:

''Her virtue, and the conscience of her worth,
That would be wooed, and not unsought be won,
Not obvious, not obtrusive, but retired'' &c.
'Obvious' is used in the Latin sense 'coming to meet one' and with Gray here is nearly synonymous with 'obtrusive,' thrusting herself forward."

Gray's English Poems, Original and Translated from the Norse and Welsh. Edited by Duncan C. Tovey. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1922 [1st ed. 1898], 288.

78.1-5 'Not ... she] "'Not obvious, not obtrusive, but [...]" R. Lonsdale, 1969.

"'Not obvious, not obtrusive, but retir'd', Par. Lost viii 504."

The Poems of Thomas Gray, William Collins, Oliver Goldsmith. Edited by Roger Lonsdale. Longman Annotated English Poets Series. London and Harlow: Longmans, 1969, 273.

Contribute a note or query

79 'No vulgar praise, no venal incense flings; 1 Explanatory

79.1-7 'No ... flings;] "Cp. Pope on the Muse, [...]" R. Lonsdale, 1969.

"Cp. Pope on the Muse, 'No Hireling she, no Prostitute to Praise', Epistle to Oxford 36; 'All see 'tis Vice, and itch of vulgar praise', Epistles to Several Persons i 119; and 'This, from no venal or ungrateful Muse', Epistle to Jervas 2."

The Poems of Thomas Gray, William Collins, Oliver Goldsmith. Edited by Roger Lonsdale. Longman Annotated English Poets Series. London and Harlow: Longmans, 1969, 273.

Contribute a note or query

80 'Nor dares with courtly tongue refined 1 Explanatory

80.1-6 'Nor ... refined] "Pope, Satires of Donne iv [...]" R. Lonsdale, 1969.

"Pope, Satires of Donne iv 47-8: 'Of whose best Phrase and courtly Accent join'd, / He forms one Tongue exotic and refin'd.'"

The Poems of Thomas Gray, William Collins, Oliver Goldsmith. Edited by Roger Lonsdale. Longman Annotated English Poets Series. London and Harlow: Longmans, 1969, 273.

Contribute a note or query

81 'Profane thy inborn royalty of mind:
82 'She reveres herself and thee.
83 'With modest pride to grace thy youthful brow 3 Explanatory

83.2-3 modest pride] "Cp. 'Yeilded with coy submission, [...]" R. Lonsdale, 1969.

"Cp. 'Yeilded with coy submission, modest pride', Par. Lost iv 310."

The Poems of Thomas Gray, William Collins, Oliver Goldsmith. Edited by Roger Lonsdale. Longman Annotated English Poets Series. London and Harlow: Longmans, 1969, 274.

83.6-8 thy ... brow] "The Duke of Grafton was [...]" D.C. Tovey, 1922 [1st ed. 1898].

"The Duke of Grafton was born in 1735, and was at his installation about 34 years old."

Gray's English Poems, Original and Translated from the Norse and Welsh. Edited by Duncan C. Tovey. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1922 [1st ed. 1898], 288.

83.7 youthful] "Grafton was born in 1735." R. Lonsdale, 1969.

"Grafton was born in 1735."

The Poems of Thomas Gray, William Collins, Oliver Goldsmith. Edited by Roger Lonsdale. Longman Annotated English Poets Series. London and Harlow: Longmans, 1969, 274.

Contribute a note or query

84 'The laureate wreath, that Cecil wore, she brings, 10 Explanatory

84.2-3 laureate wreath,] "laureate wreath is from Milton: [...]" J. Bradshaw, 1903 [1st ed. 1891].

"laureate wreath is from Milton: - ''Worcester's laureate wreath,'' ''Sonnet to Cromwell.''"

The Poetical Works of Thomas Gray: English and Latin. Edited with an introduction, life, notes and a bibliography by John Bradshaw. Reprinted edition. The Aldine edition of the British poets series. London: George Bell and sons, 1903 [1st edition 1891], 244.

84.2-3 laureate wreath,] "The leaves of the bay [...]" D.C. Tovey, 1922 [1st ed. 1898].

"The leaves of the bay tree, sacred to Apollo, were used to crown poets and men of letters generally (hence 'poet laureate'), and are therefore appropriate to the chief dignitaries in a great University. But William Cecil was, besides, himself a man of intense application to study when at Cambridge. Laurels were also used to crown conquerors; in this sense Milton uses the phrase which Gray has taken from him: Sonnet to Cromwell, l. 9,

''While Darwen stream, with blood of Scots imbrued,
And Dunbar field, resounds thy praises loud,
And Worcester's laureate wreath.'' "

Gray's English Poems, Original and Translated from the Norse and Welsh. Edited by Duncan C. Tovey. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1922 [1st ed. 1898], 289.

84.2-3 laureate wreath,] "Cp. 'And Worcester's laureate wreath', [...]" R. Lonsdale, 1969.

"Cp. 'And Worcester's laureate wreath', Milton, Sonnet to Cromwell 9."

The Poems of Thomas Gray, William Collins, Oliver Goldsmith. Edited by Roger Lonsdale. Longman Annotated English Poets Series. London and Harlow: Longmans, 1969, 274.

84.5 Cecil] "William Cecil, Lord Burghley, Queen [...]" W. Lyon Phelps, 1894.

"William Cecil, Lord Burghley, Queen Elizabeth's famous Lord Treasurer. He was elected Chancellor of the University of Cambridge in 1558. He was not made Lord Burghley until 1571."

Selections from the Poetry and Prose of Thomas Gray. Ed. with an introduction and notes by William Lyon Phelps. The Athenaeum press series. Boston: Ginn & company, 1894, 176.

84.5 Cecil] "''Lord Treasurer Burleigh was Chancellor [...]" J. Bradshaw, 1903 [1st ed. 1891].

"''Lord Treasurer Burleigh was Chancellor of the University in the reign of Queen Elizabeth.'' - Mason."

The Poetical Works of Thomas Gray: English and Latin. Edited with an introduction, life, notes and a bibliography by John Bradshaw. Reprinted edition. The Aldine edition of the British poets series. London: George Bell and sons, 1903 [1st edition 1891], 244.

84.5 Cecil] "Lord Treasurer Burleigh was Chancellor [...]" D.C. Tovey, 1922 [1st ed. 1898].

"Lord Treasurer Burleigh was Chancellor of the University in the reign of Queen Elizabeth. Mason.
He was elected Chancellor of the University early in 1559. 'He was not made Lord Burghley until 1571.' Phelps. His college was St John's, the Venerable Margaret's foundation. See Froude, Hist, of Eng. vol. VII. c. 43, pp. 203 sq. for the pains Cecil took, as Chancellor, to disguise from Elizabeth on her visit to the University the confusion and disorder into which the place had fallen; and for 'the rashness of a few boys, which marred all.' "

Gray's English Poems, Original and Translated from the Norse and Welsh. Edited by Duncan C. Tovey. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1922 [1st ed. 1898], 289.

84.5 Cecil] "[William Cecil (1520-98), first Lord [...]" H.W. Starr/J.R. Hendrickson, 1966.

"[William Cecil (1520-98), first Lord Burghley.] Lord Treasurer Burleigh was Chancellor of the University [1559], in the reign of Q. Elizabeth. M[ason]."

The Complete Poems of Thomas Gray: English, Latin and Greek. Edited by Herbert W. Starr and J. R. Hendrickson. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1966, 228.

84.5 Cecil] "[William Cecil,] Lord Treasurer Burleigh [...]" R. Lonsdale, 1969.

"[William Cecil,] Lord Treasurer Burleigh was Chancellor of the University, in the reign of Q. Elizabeth [1559]. Mason."

The Poems of Thomas Gray, William Collins, Oliver Goldsmith. Edited by Roger Lonsdale. Longman Annotated English Poets Series. London and Harlow: Longmans, 1969, 274.

84.5 Cecil] "William Cecil, Lord Burleigh, Elizabeth [...]" J. Reeves, 1973.

"William Cecil, Lord Burleigh, Elizabeth I's great minister had also been Chancellor of the university."

The Complete English Poems of Thomas Gray. Edited with an Introduction and Notes by James Reeves. The Poetry Bookshelf series. London: Heinemann; New York: Barnes & Noble, 1973, 118.

84.5 Cecil] "William Cecil, Lord Burleigh, was [...]" J. Heath-Stubbs, 1981.

"William Cecil, Lord Burleigh, was Chancellor of the University in the reign of Queen Elizabeth."

Thomas Gray: Selected Poems. Ed. by John Heath-Stubbs. Manchester: Carcanet New Press Ltd., 1981, 81.

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85 'And to thy just, thy gentle hand
86 'Submits the fasces of her sway, 2 Explanatory

86.3 fasces] "The fasces were a bundle [...]" D.C. Tovey, 1922 [1st ed. 1898].

"The fasces were a bundle of rods in the centre of which was an axe; they were borne by the lictors before the Roman consuls, and were a symbol of authority. Mitford quotes the last lines of Dryden's Threnodia Augustalis,

''[The asserted Ocean rears his reverend head,
To view and recognise his ancient lord again:]
And with a willing hand, restores
The fasces of the main.''
And the same expression, Annus Mirabilis, st. 50: ''And shook aloft the fasces of the main.'' "

Gray's English Poems, Original and Translated from the Norse and Welsh. Edited by Duncan C. Tovey. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1922 [1st ed. 1898], 289.

86.3 fasces] "The rods which symbolized consular [...]" R. Lonsdale, 1969.

"The rods which symbolized consular authority in ancient Rome. Cp. Dryden, Astraea Redux 248-9: 'Proud her returning Prince to entertain / With the submitted fasces of the main', and Threnodia Augustalis 516-7: 'And with a willing hand restores / The fasces of the main.' G[ray]. again echoes a passage in Par. Lost iv 307-9 (cp. l. 83): 'which impli'd / Subjection, but requir'd with gentle sway, / And by her yeilded, by him best received.'"

The Poems of Thomas Gray, William Collins, Oliver Goldsmith. Edited by Roger Lonsdale. Longman Annotated English Poets Series. London and Harlow: Longmans, 1969, 274.

Contribute a note or query

87 'While spirits blest above and men below 1 Explanatory

87.1 - 88.8 'While ... lay.] "See Bard 119 and n. [...]" R. Lonsdale, 1969.

"See Bard 119 and n. (p. 197)."

The Poems of Thomas Gray, William Collins, Oliver Goldsmith. Edited by Roger Lonsdale. Longman Annotated English Poets Series. London and Harlow: Longmans, 1969, 274.

Contribute a note or query

88 'Join with glad voice the loud symphonious lay. 1 Explanatory

87.1 - 88.8 'While ... lay.] "See Bard 119 and n. [...]" R. Lonsdale, 1969.

"See Bard 119 and n. (p. 197)."

The Poems of Thomas Gray, William Collins, Oliver Goldsmith. Edited by Roger Lonsdale. Longman Annotated English Poets Series. London and Harlow: Longmans, 1969, 274.

Contribute a note or query


Grand Chorus

89 'Through the wild waves as they roar 4 Explanatory

89.1 - 94.7 'Through ... deep.'] "Mr. Gosse justly calls this [...]" W. Lyon Phelps, 1894.

"Mr. Gosse justly calls this stanza the only absurd thing in Gray's poetry. It might indeed have been written by any Augustan parasite."

Selections from the Poetry and Prose of Thomas Gray. Ed. with an introduction and notes by William Lyon Phelps. The Athenaeum press series. Boston: Ginn & company, 1894, 176.

89.1-7 'Through ... roar] "The words of Milton again, [...]" J. Bradshaw, 1903 [1st ed. 1891].

"The words of Milton again, ''Comus,'' 87: - ''Well knows to still the wild winds when they roar.''"

The Poetical Works of Thomas Gray: English and Latin. Edited with an introduction, life, notes and a bibliography by John Bradshaw. Reprinted edition. The Aldine edition of the British poets series. London: George Bell and sons, 1903 [1st edition 1891], 244.

89.1-7 'Through ... roar] "Milton, Comus, 87: ''Well knows [...]" D.C. Tovey, 1922 [1st ed. 1898].

"Milton, Comus, 87: ''Well knows to still the wild winds when they roar'' and Shakesp., Temp. I. 2. 379: ''Courtsied when you have and kiss'd / The wild waves whist.'' Dryden, Annus Mirabilis, st. 94: ''The wild waves master'd him and suck'd him in.'' "

Gray's English Poems, Original and Translated from the Norse and Welsh. Edited by Duncan C. Tovey. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1922 [1st ed. 1898], 289.

89.1-7 'Through ... roar] "'Well knows to still the [...]" R. Lonsdale, 1969.

"'Well knows to still the wild winds when they roar', Milton, Comus 87."

The Poems of Thomas Gray, William Collins, Oliver Goldsmith. Edited by Roger Lonsdale. Longman Annotated English Poets Series. London and Harlow: Longmans, 1969, 274.

Contribute a note or query

90 'With watchful eye and dauntless mien 1 Explanatory

89.1 - 94.7 'Through ... deep.'] "Mr. Gosse justly calls this [...]" W. Lyon Phelps, 1894.

"Mr. Gosse justly calls this stanza the only absurd thing in Gray's poetry. It might indeed have been written by any Augustan parasite."

Selections from the Poetry and Prose of Thomas Gray. Ed. with an introduction and notes by William Lyon Phelps. The Athenaeum press series. Boston: Ginn & company, 1894, 176.

Contribute a note or query

91 'Thy steady course of honour keep, 1 Explanatory

89.1 - 94.7 'Through ... deep.'] "Mr. Gosse justly calls this [...]" W. Lyon Phelps, 1894.

"Mr. Gosse justly calls this stanza the only absurd thing in Gray's poetry. It might indeed have been written by any Augustan parasite."

Selections from the Poetry and Prose of Thomas Gray. Ed. with an introduction and notes by William Lyon Phelps. The Athenaeum press series. Boston: Ginn & company, 1894, 176.

Contribute a note or query

92 'Nor fear the rocks nor seek the shore: 4 Explanatory

89.1 - 94.7 'Through ... deep.'] "Mr. Gosse justly calls this [...]" W. Lyon Phelps, 1894.

"Mr. Gosse justly calls this stanza the only absurd thing in Gray's poetry. It might indeed have been written by any Augustan parasite."

Selections from the Poetry and Prose of Thomas Gray. Ed. with an introduction and notes by William Lyon Phelps. The Athenaeum press series. Boston: Ginn & company, 1894, 176.

92.1-8 'Nor ... shore:] "This means ''guide the ship [...]" J. Bradshaw, 1903 [1st ed. 1891].

"This means ''guide the ship of state safely,'' in allusion to the Duke being Prime Minister; the idea is from Horace: -

            ''Neque altum
Semper urgendo, neque, dum procellas
Cautus horrescis, nimium premendo
      Littus iniquum.'' - Odes, ii. 10."

The Poetical Works of Thomas Gray: English and Latin. Edited with an introduction, life, notes and a bibliography by John Bradshaw. Reprinted edition. The Aldine edition of the British poets series. London: George Bell and sons, 1903 [1st edition 1891], 244.

92.1-8 'Nor ... shore:] "The figure is of course [...]" D.C. Tovey, 1922 [1st ed. 1898].

"The figure is of course of Grafton helming the ship of state: 'the wild waves' are the domestic troubles centering round Wilkes, and the various other discontents treated in Junius' letters. But though Gray has Horace in mind:

        ''neque altum
Semper urguendo, neque dum procellas
Cautus horrescis, nimium premendo
        Litus iniquum.
[Not always tempt the distant deep
Nor always timorously creep
    Along the treacherous shore. Cowper]
he departs from him, and not for the better. Who would tell a pilot not to be afraid of rocks? Gray means 'do not, because you fear the rocks, keep too far out to sea.' But contrast with his feeble and obscure use of this hint from Horace, Dryden's lucid and vigorous description from the same source of:
''...a daring pilot in extremity,
Pleased with the danger when the waves went high,
He sought the storms, but for a calm unfit
Would steer too nigh the sands, to boast his wit.''
        Absalom and Achitophel, Pt. I. ll. I59 sq."

Gray's English Poems, Original and Translated from the Norse and Welsh. Edited by Duncan C. Tovey. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1922 [1st ed. 1898], 289/290.

92.1-8 'Nor ... shore:] "Horace, Odes II x 1-4: [...]" R. Lonsdale, 1969.

"Horace, Odes II x 1-4: neque altum / semper urgendo neque, dum procellas / cautis horrescis, nimium premendo / litus iniquum (neither always pressing out to sea nor too closely hugging the dangerous shore in cautious fear of storms)."

The Poems of Thomas Gray, William Collins, Oliver Goldsmith. Edited by Roger Lonsdale. Longman Annotated English Poets Series. London and Harlow: Longmans, 1969, 274.

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93 'The star of Brunswick smiles serene, 6 Explanatory

89.1 - 94.7 'Through ... deep.'] "Mr. Gosse justly calls this [...]" W. Lyon Phelps, 1894.

"Mr. Gosse justly calls this stanza the only absurd thing in Gray's poetry. It might indeed have been written by any Augustan parasite."

Selections from the Poetry and Prose of Thomas Gray. Ed. with an introduction and notes by William Lyon Phelps. The Athenaeum press series. Boston: Ginn & company, 1894, 176.

93.1-4 'The ... Brunswick] "This is a double compliment [...]" J. Bradshaw, 1903 [1st ed. 1891].

"This is a double compliment to the King and to the Prime Minister. ''The star that guides your royal master is now in the ascendant, and shines brightly to guide you in steering the ship of state.'' Mitford refers to Pope, ''Essay on Criticism'': -

''The mighty Stagyrite first left the shore,
Spread all his sails, and durst the deeps explore;
He steered securely, and discovered far,
Led by the light of the Maeonian star.'' - 645."

The Poetical Works of Thomas Gray: English and Latin. Edited with an introduction, life, notes and a bibliography by John Bradshaw. Reprinted edition. The Aldine edition of the British poets series. London: George Bell and sons, 1903 [1st edition 1891], 244.

93.1-6 'The ... serene,] "The guiding star of George [...]" D.C. Tovey, 1922 [1st ed. 1898].

"The guiding star of George III. and the House of Brunswick generally. George I. was son of the Duke of Brunswick-Luneburg, who became Elector of Hanover."

Gray's English Poems, Original and Translated from the Norse and Welsh. Edited by Duncan C. Tovey. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1922 [1st ed. 1898], 290.

93.1-4 'The ... Brunswick] "'The guiding star of George [...]" R. Lonsdale, 1969.

"'The guiding star of George III. and the House of Brunswick generally. George I. was son of the Duke of Brunswick-Luneburg, who became Elector of Hanover.' (Tovey)."

The Poems of Thomas Gray, William Collins, Oliver Goldsmith. Edited by Roger Lonsdale. Longman Annotated English Poets Series. London and Harlow: Longmans, 1969, 274.

93.1-4 'The ... Brunswick] "The guiding star of George [...]" J. Heath-Stubbs, 1981.

"The guiding star of George the Third and the Hanoverian Dynasty. The Duke of Brunswick-Luneburg was Elector of Hanover."

Thomas Gray: Selected Poems. Ed. by John Heath-Stubbs. Manchester: Carcanet New Press Ltd., 1981, 81.

93.4 Brunswick] "the ruling house of the [...]" J. Reeves, 1973.

"the ruling house of the day."

The Complete English Poems of Thomas Gray. Edited with an Introduction and Notes by James Reeves. The Poetry Bookshelf series. London: Heinemann; New York: Barnes & Noble, 1973, 118.

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94 'And gilds the horrors of the deep.' 1 Explanatory

89.1 - 94.7 'Through ... deep.'] "Mr. Gosse justly calls this [...]" W. Lyon Phelps, 1894.

"Mr. Gosse justly calls this stanza the only absurd thing in Gray's poetry. It might indeed have been written by any Augustan parasite."

Selections from the Poetry and Prose of Thomas Gray. Ed. with an introduction and notes by William Lyon Phelps. The Athenaeum press series. Boston: Ginn & company, 1894, 176.

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FINIS

Works cited

  • The Poetical Works of Thomas Gray: English and Latin. Edited with an introduction, life, notes and a bibliography by John Bradshaw. Reprinted edition. The Aldine edition of the British poets series. London: George Bell and sons, 1903 [1st edition 1891].
  • Poems of Thomas Gray. Edited by W. C. Eppstein. London and Glasgow: Blackie & Son Ltd., 1959.
  • The Works of Thomas Gray: In Prose and Verse. Ed. by Edmund Gosse, in four vols. London: MacMillan and Co., 1912 [1st edition 1884], vol. i.
  • Thomas Gray: Selected Poems. Ed. by John Heath-Stubbs. Manchester: Carcanet New Press Ltd., 1981.
  • The Poems of Thomas Gray, William Collins, Oliver Goldsmith. Edited by Roger Lonsdale. Longman Annotated English Poets Series. London and Harlow: Longmans, 1969.
  • The Poems of Gray and Collins. Edited by Austin Lane Poole. Revised by Leonard Whibley. Third edition. Oxford editions of standard authors series. London: Oxford UP, 1937, reprinted 1950 [1st ed. 1919].
  • Selections from the Poetry and Prose of Thomas Gray. Ed. with an introduction and notes by William Lyon Phelps. The Athenaeum press series. Boston: Ginn & company, 1894.
  • The Complete English Poems of Thomas Gray. Edited with an Introduction and Notes by James Reeves. The Poetry Bookshelf series. London: Heinemann; New York: Barnes & Noble, 1973.
  • The Complete Poems of Thomas Gray: English, Latin and Greek. Edited by Herbert W. Starr and J. R. Hendrickson. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1966.
  • Gray's English Poems, Original and Translated from the Norse and Welsh. Edited by Duncan C. Tovey. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1922 [1st ed. 1898].

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Spelling has been modernized throughout, except in case of conscious archaisms. Contractions, italics and initial capitalization have been largely eliminated, except where of real import. Obvious errors have been silently corrected, punctuation has been lightly modernized. The editor would like to express his gratitude to the library staff of the Göttingen State and University Library (SUB Göttingen) for their invaluable assistance.